Indeed, asserting a religious identity in public, even bragging about it, can be viewed as an indication of Americanization or assimilation to American norms Casanova and Zolberg, Thus, as the scholarly literature on immigrant religion emphasizes, becoming more religious is a way of becoming American — whereas it is often seen as a problem in Europe. It's much harder to fit into a more. The hand of constitutional and legal history is heavy in this respect. In the United States, key constitutional principles were fashioned because of the religious diversity among the colonies that became states and the resulting impossibility of institutionalizing a single state church though some of the colonies — e.
The resulting principles of religious freedom and separation of church and state, enshrined in the Constitution's first amendment, have provided the framework for a multireligious nation and religious pluralism, which has characterized American society from the very beginning Eck, In this respect, one hears an echo of the contemporary European debate about Islam's place.
What is important is that Catholics and Jews were eventually incorporated into the system of American pluralism. Without the separation of church and state, we believe, the religions imported by past immigration streams could not have achieved parity with Protestant versions of Christianity. Because the state did not officially support or sponsor Protestantism, the newer religions were able over time to achieve parity and become part of the American mainstream as the descendants of the immigrants did.
Bush confirmed this by making a point of visiting a mosque in the wake of the September 11 attacks Zolberg and Woon, ; Zolberg, Nor is the contemporary United States a paradise of religious tolerance — far from it. In a recent national survey, a substantial minority about a third of respondents said they would not welcome a stronger presence of Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists in American society. Indeed, today, the new immigrant religions, including Islam, are enjoying the same freedoms to organize themselves and to support the beliefs and practices of their members as did the religions of earlier immigrants.
In Europe, in contrast, the ways in which Christian religions have been institutionalized make it difficult for Islam to achieve parity and are implicated in many of the problems and conflicts that have arisen. Continental religious traditions, as Klausen , notes, focused on resolving conflicts between state and government and powerful established churches:.
They have not historically emphasized the rights of nonconformists or worried about state neutrality in matters of faith. Constitutions typically contain equality commitments and promise of freedom of thought, but no language or requirement concerning the equal treatment of religion. While secular natives in Western Europe may see religion as a minor feature of their societies, Muslims cannot help but be aware of the secondary status of their religion and the special privileges accorded to majority denominations Alba, The same law that established state possession of religious edifices built before that year also prevents the state from contributing to the construction of new ones, thus keeping the country's 4—5 million Muslims from enjoying the same privileges as Christians.
Most French mosques are, as a consequence, ad hoc structures — in converted rooms in housing projects, garages, or even basements Laurence and Vaisse, The Dutch government privatized the clergy's salaries and pensions in a large buyout in , in preparation for the constitutional changes, after which the government ceased paying for the construction of houses of worship Klausen, Government support for religious schools has created other inequalities in Western Europe between established religions and Islam.
In Britain and France the state provides financial support for religious schools as long as they teach the national secular curriculum. Inevitably, these arrangements, while seemingly fair to all religions, favor the most established ones. In Britain where senior Anglican bishops sit in the House of Lords by right as part of the established state church the government funds nearly 7, Church of England and Catholic schools but, as of , only seven Islamic schools in a nation of 1.
In Germany, the state, according to the constitution, must be neutral in matters of religion, but this does not preclude linkages between church and state. Further, the established religions are taught in public schools by regular teachers i.
Islam, however, has so far failed to be accorded the same status except in Berlin and Lower Saxony , and instruction in it is not universally available; when it is, it occurs usually in some nonregular form such as an experimental basis or in supplementary classes taught in Turkish by instructors provided by the Turkish consulate Engin, The different ways that religion has been institutionalized in the United States and Western Europe have implications for the claims of immigrant religious groups — and conflicts that may result.
In the United States, immigrants with allegiance to minority religions have generally sought inclusion in the mainstream through public acceptance and recognition of their group. Although an important historical exception was the unsuccessful struggle by Catholics for public funds for parochial schools, many minority religious groups — perhaps, most notably, Jewish organizations — have fought for a strict adherence to separation of church and state and keeping religion out of the public sphere including public schools , as a way to prevent discrimination and obtain parity with dominant religions.
Our argument has been that a combination of factors — religious similarity between natives and immigrants, historically rooted institutional structures, and the religiosity of the native population — explain why the United States is more welcoming to immigrant religion than is Western Europe and, as a consequence, why the social science literature on religion among immigrants in the United States emphasizes its integrative role while in Europe conflict and exclusion come to the fore.
Yet to leave matters there would be to overlook some of the complexities and emerging trends on both sides of the Atlantic that ought to be taken into account. If studies of U. Moreover, when it comes to religion, there are some disquieting signs that its integrative role among U. Although the exemptions from federal, state, and local laws and taxes have applied not only to churches and synagogues but also to mosques and Hindu temples, Christian churches have been the greatest beneficiaries given the dominance of Christianity in the United States.
As for the situation in Western Europe, it is also well to bear in mind developments that temper, at least somewhat, the gloomy picture we have described for the integration of Islam there. European governments realize that they must find ways to fund and support the development of an independent Islam and offer some accommodations for Muslim religious practices Kastoryano, ; Fetzer and Soper, :2; Klausen, Britain is particularly liberal on this score. To be sure, Britain has an established Anglican church; the state has not extended all the antidiscrimination protections that exist for gender, race, and ethnicity to religion although in it banned religious discrimination in employment ; and the government has refused to extend the blasphemy laws, used in the past to protect Christian values against offensive attacks on matters regarded as sacred, to all religious communities Fetzer and Soper, , 59; Modood, — Still, on the whole, as Vertovec argues, the accommodation to many specific tenets and practices of religious minorities, including Islam, has been considerable and progressive in Britain.
Moreover, Muslims had the bad fortune to arrive as the system of pillarization was on the decline, so there was no question of a Muslim pillar, comparable to the Protestant and Catholic pillars of the past, in terms of institutional arrangements.
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Yet the legacy of the pillarized system, it has been argued, has led to the accommodation of, and receptivity to, Muslim group claims. This accommodation, Rath [ ] argues, has not always occurred without a struggle.
3: Islam in West Africa. Introduction, spread and effects – History Textbook
Major changes are also under way in France. The establishment of this council, which exists on both national and regional levels, finally puts Islam on the same plane as other religions in relationship to the French state, for each of the major religions is represented by a similar body; in the case of Jews, for instance, the Jewish Consistoire Central dates to the emancipation of Jews in the Napoleonic era. The French Council of the Muslim Religion has a mandate to negotiate with the French state over issues affecting Islamic religious practice, such as the training of imams and the regulation of ritual slaughter; and as Laurence and Vaisse observe, it represents an attempt by the French state to establish an Islam of France rather than simply tolerate Islam in France.
On the other hand, some predict that as the second generation takes over in religious associations and institutions, they will generally strive for a more liberal version of Islam than their parents practiced, one that is focused on integration into Western European society and viewed more positively by the wider population Lucassen, —, Just how these two trends will, in fact, unfold — and interact — is, as yet, an open question. In the end, though, and despite these caveats, we are back to where we started.
Changes may be afoot in both Western Europe and the United States, but it is likely that, for some time to come, Islam will continue to be problematic in Western Europe, engendering tensions and conflict, just as immigrant religions in the United States will continue to offer an acceptable and easily accessible way for newcomers and their children to fit into American society. And, because the social science literature inevitably reflects the concerns and realities in the societies under study, we can also expect social science work on immigrant religion to continue to be characterized by the patterns we have described here, with an emphasis on its positive role in immigrant adjustment and assimilation in the United States and its links to the difficulties of incorporating Muslim immigrants and their children into Western European societies.
Volume 42 , Issue 2. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
The Arab-Islamic World and Global Geopolitics: Endogenous Vs. Exogenous Factors
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. International Migration Review Volume 42, Issue 2. Free Access. Tools Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract This article analyzes why immigrant religion is viewed as a problematic area in Western Europe in contrast to the United States, where it is seen as facilitating the adaptation process.
Refuge, Respectability, and Resources For immigrants who are separated from their homeland and from many relatives, religious membership offers a refuge in the sense that it creates a sense of belonging and participation in the face of loss and the strains of adjustment Hirschman, Upward Mobility and Civic Skills There are two additional positive aspects of religion for immigrants and their children that appear in the US social science literature.
Religious communities, she maintains, are precisely the places where new immigrants gain their feet and practice the arts of internal democracy. A Threat to Values and Integration At one end of the spectrum are social scientists — a minority, to be sure — who suggest or explicitly argue that Islam is impeding the integration of immigrant minorities and threatening the liberal values of European states e.
Discrimination and Prejudice Another — and more common — theme in the social science literature is the discrimination and restrictions facing Muslims in Western Europe. Conflicts If discussions of conflicts between immigrant religions and mainstream American institutions rarely appear in the American social science literature, this is very different in Western Europe. ISBN pbk. Muslims--Europe--Historyst century. Europe--Ethnic relations--Historyst century. Islam and politics--Europe.
Islam and state--Europe. Kilpadi, Pamela, II. M87I73 Printed in Hungary by Createch Ltd. What Values for Europe? Mi c ha el Emer s on. The Southern Gate to Fortress Europe! Conflict in Georgia: Religion and Ethnicity! Archi l Geg es hi dz e. Alexey Gu n y a. Ideology and Intolerance! Pa vel Ba yov. Iri n a Kouzn et s ova -Moren k o. Muslim Minorities and Czech Society! Interethnic Policymaking for Interethnic Tolerance!
Isl a m Yus ufi. Religion, Media and National Security in Albania! Recent Publications Photo Archives. Like the concept of Europe itself, Wider Europe lacks a commonly understood definition, not to mention a common identity. While such delicate diplomacy is perhaps advisable on the part of European politicians, ignorance about the political abuse of religion in the context of nation and empire building has long clouded understanding between the West and its eastern and southern neighbors. Esposito noted ten years ago.
What if you were there when the World Trade Center blew up? Islam and Tolerance in Wider Europe attempts to illuminate the complex interplay between religion, nationalism and expansionism in an increasingly globalized world, as revealed by a new generation of open society leaders working to build a more tolerant Europe. Each chapter—focusing on Western Europe, the Caucasus, Russia, Turkey, Central Europe, and the Balkans—includes several essays by authors involved in the dynamic policymaking processes transforming their respective countries.
In an attempt to do justice to years of evidence-gathering, extensive references are included for essays incorporating new investigatory research on controversial issues. As regards the treatment of its Muslims, the EU appears to be largely failing its own tests. A first-hand account of the Beslan primary school hostage-taking that claimed the lives 1 Esposito, John L. Dispelling myths of collective guilt and restoring a more equitable distribution of political and economic resources, therefore, will go a long way toward easing tensions among Caucasus communities.
Apparently, as the influence on U. Islam and policy in Central Europe is the focus of the fifth chapter.
3: Islam in West Africa. Introduction, spread and effects
With the exception of largely urbanized and Europeanized Muslims from the Balkans, the majority of Central Europeans have had relatively little exposure to more traditional Muslim communities. A key lesson that runs through many of the essays harkens back to findings from the Caucasus, which show that more equitable political representation among ethnicities as well as distribution of economic resources will pave the road toward lasting peace.
Since its establishment in , some of its most active alumni and current fellows have grown into a working network of open society leaders spanning more than 40 countries on nearly every continent. Now nurtured by a variety of local and international donors as well as Soros programs and foundations, the new network of open society policy researchers has grown in influence, with alumni fellows launching their own research institutes and national policy fellowships.
In their search for new knowledge, fellows have demonstrated that the more we strive to view the world from other perspectives, the more we succeed in finding solutions to common problems. Nevertheless, open society has its enemies. At times bolstered by an increase in oil prices and a decline in western moral authority following the war in Iraq, authoritarian leaders around the world are flexing their muscles, and even winning approval on occasion via the ballot box.
As a consequence, in addition to thanking those listed in this volume for both their editorial and intellectual insights, I wish to extend special thanks to those colleagues who cannot be named in these pages. Berit Fuglestad eds. Expertise in the area of criminology, she has been member of boards such as Chairperson of the Prison Substance Abuse Applications Board , and Local Councillor in charge of gender equality, culture, health and security She has also a background on education as a teacher, connecting the fields education and social exclusion.
The state of policing in Malta for Routledge Policing Encyclopedea ; Domestic violence in Malta and Trapani Sicily : a comparison of available structures and programmes. Lecturer at the University of Malta. Experience in the fields of probation services and in the fields of criminology and criminal justice. She is familiar with the problems related to social exclusion and social cohesion, like the connexion between delinquency and educational and home backgrounds.
Scicluna, S. Substance abuse and domestic violence. Bell and S. Arpa Eds. Euro med networking in substance abuse: Aetiological and policy perspective. Azzopardi, J. Youths in Malta: The criminal justice system. Unpublished report. Chair-person of the Baltic Institute of Social Sciences researcher.
She was a group leader of several projects focused on educational issues, including the policy analysis of bilingual education in Latvia. Zepa B. The Aland Islands Peace Institute. Citizenship, Official language, and Bilingual education in Latvia: Public Policy in the last 10 years. In: Baltic States. University Press Fribourg Switzerland. Zepa, B. PhD student in the University of Latvia. Building Europe with New Citizens?
Financed by the Soros Foundation. A Sourcebook. Riga PhD student at the University of Latvia. Participant in the following research projects: Integration of minority youth in the society of Latvia within the context of the educational reform. Analysis of the Implementation of Bilingual education.
Latvian Educational reform within the context of the existing and potential models of bilingualism in Latvia: a two-stream school as an evaluation of the example of bilingual education. Financed by the Soros Foundation Latvia. The effectiveness of social services — reintegration of victims of human beings trafficking.
Project manager — researcher.
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Baltic Institute of Social Sciences. Mircea Alexiu, T. Theory and Method in the Social Work Practice. Timisoara: Mirton. Community Development. Timisoara: Ed. Director of the Grundtvig 1 project The Development of Psychopedagogical and Professional Counselling Services DPPC and scientific director of the Leonardo project Socio-psycho-pedagogical and managerial training for adult trainers Sava, S.
Continuing Education in Romania. In Julian Auleytner coord. Warshaw: Ed. Adult education in Romania in the last ten years. Ploeger, B. History, ethics and ideology in adult education , pp. Limits of communication in adult education. In Soitu, L. Communication in Adult Education. Theory and Practice in Educational Evaluation. She holds Ph. Vrecer, Natalija. Integration as a human right: forced migrants from Bosnia-Herzegovina in Slovenia. The Mosque debate and anti-Muslim sentiment in Slovenia.
In: Islam and tolerance in wider Europe , Policy perspectives. Budapest: Open Society Institute, cop. The European citizen in a learning society: governed, mobilised, or active?. Who is the European? New York: Peter Lang, pp. Vocational education: international approaches, developments and systems. London: Routledge, pp. The role of lifelong learning in building citizenship: European Union approaches in the light of British and colonial experience. International Journal of Lifelong Education , 25 3 , Laura C.
Laura earned her Ph. Her doctoral thesis, entitled: Rescaling the State: The Politics of Educational Decentralization in Catalonia, examined contemporary policy-making processes in Catalonia, in relation to simultaneous pressures of European integration, and fragmentation in the case of devolution in Spain. McCarthy, C. New York: Peter Lang. Rizvi, F. Equality and the politics of globalization in education. In Verma, G. Inclusive education: International perspectives.
Walters, N. Bristol: The Polity Press;. Educational Initiatives with the Unemployed. Jarvis Ed. Policy and Practice in Continuing Education , pp. Francisco and London: Jossey Bass.