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Sustainable development reduces poverty through financial among other things, a balanced budget , environmental living conditions , and social including equality of income means. In sustainable architecture the recent movements of New Urbanism and New Classical architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction, that appreciates and develops smart growth , architectural tradition and classical design. Sustainable architecture is predominantly relevant to the economics domain while architectural landscaping pertains more to the ecological domain.

A study concluded that social indicators and, therefore, sustainable development indicators, are scientific constructs whose principal objective is to inform public policy-making. The framework consists of six core areas:. The United Nations Global Compact Cities Programme has defined sustainable political development in a way that broadens the usual definition beyond states and governance. The political is defined as the domain of practices and meanings associated with basic issues of social power as they pertain to the organisation, authorisation, legitimation and regulation of a social life held in common.

This definition is in accord with the view that political change is important for responding to economic, ecological and cultural challenges. It also means that the politics of economic change can be addressed. They have listed seven subdomains of the domain of politics: [90]. This accords with the Brundtland Commission emphasis on development that is guided by human rights principles see above. Working with a different emphasis, some researchers and institutions have pointed out that a fourth dimension should be added to the dimensions of sustainable development, since the triple-bottom-line dimensions of economic, environmental and social do not seem to be enough to reflect the complexity of contemporary society.

This document inaugurates a new perspective and points to the relation between culture and sustainable development through a dual approach: developing a solid cultural policy and advocating a cultural dimension in all public policies. The Circles of Sustainability approach distinguishes the four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability.

Other organizations have also supported the idea of a fourth domain of sustainable development. The Network of Excellence "Sustainable Development in a Diverse World", [94] sponsored by the European Union , integrates multidisciplinary capacities and interprets cultural diversity as a key element of a new strategy for sustainable development.

Globalisation and Sustainable Development: Environmental Agendas

The Circles of Sustainability approach used by Metropolis defines the fourth cultural domain as practices, discourses, and material expressions, which, over time, express continuities and discontinuities of social meaning. Recently, human-centered design and cultural collaboration have been popular frameworks for sustainable development in marginalized communities. This allows for them to understand each other's thought process and their comprehension of the sustainable projects. The user-oriented framework relies heavily on user participation and user feedback in the planning process. Many communities express environmental concerns, so life cycle analysis is often conducted when assessing the sustainability of a product or prototype.

These factors ensure that researchers are conscious of community values that align with positive environmental, social, and economic impacts. The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development UNCSD; also known as Rio was the third international conference on sustainable development, which aimed at reconciling the economic and environmental goals of the global community.

An outcome of this conference was the development of the Sustainable Development Goals that aim to promote sustainable progress and eliminate inequalities around the world. However, few nations met the World Wide Fund for Nature 's definition of sustainable development criteria established in In a report for the U. Environmental Protection Agency stated: "While much discussion and effort has gone into sustainability indicators, none of the resulting systems clearly tells us whether our society is sustainable.

At best, they can tell us that we are heading in the wrong direction, or that our current activities are not sustainable. More often, they simply draw our attention to the existence of problems, doing little to tell us the origin of those problems and nothing to tell us how to solve them.

Those indicators are expected to be identified and adjusted through empirical observations trial and error. The most common critiques are related to issues like data quality, comparability, objective function and the necessary resources. The Cuban-born researcher and entrepreneur Sonia Bueno suggests an alternative approach that is based upon the integral, long-term cost-benefit relationship as a measure and monitoring tool for the sustainability of every project, activity or enterprise.

Reasonable qualifications of sustainability are seen U. This design incorporates some ecological, economic, and social elements. The goals presented by LEED design goals are sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmospheric emission reduction, material and resources efficiency, and indoor environmental quality. Although amount of structures for sustainability development is many, these qualification has become a standard for sustainable building. Recent research efforts created also the SDEWES Index to benchmark the performance of cities across aspects that are related to energy, water and environment systems.

It is currently applied to 58 cities. The sustainable development debate is based on the assumption that societies need to manage three types of capital economic, social, and natural , which may be non-substitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible. While it is possible that we can find ways to replace some natural resources, it is much more unlikely that they will ever be able to replace eco-system services, such as the protection provided by the ozone layer, or the climate stabilizing function of the Amazonian forest.

In fact natural capital, social capital and economic capital are often complementarities. A further obstacle to substitutability lies also in the multi-functionality of many natural resources. Forests, for example, not only provide the raw material for paper which can be substituted quite easily , but they also maintain biodiversity, regulate water flow, and absorb CO2.

Another problem of natural and social capital deterioration lies in their partial irreversibility. The loss of biodiversity , for example, is often definitive. The same can be true for cultural diversity. For example, with globalisation advancing quickly the number of indigenous languages is dropping at alarming rates. Moreover, the depletion of natural and social capital may have non-linear consequences.

Consumption of natural and social capital may have no observable impact until a certain threshold is reached. A lake can, for example, absorb nutrients for a long time while actually increasing its productivity. However, once a certain level of algae is reached lack of oxygen causes the lake's ecosystem to break down suddenly.

If the degradation of natural and social capital has such important consequence the question arises why action is not taken more systematically to alleviate it. Cohen and Winn [] point to four types of market failure as possible explanations: First, while the benefits of natural or social capital depletion can usually be privatised, the costs are often externalised i. Second, natural capital is often undervalued by society since we are not fully aware of the real cost of the depletion of natural capital. Information asymmetry is a third reason—often the link between cause and effect is obscured, making it difficult for actors to make informed choices.

Cohen and Winn close with the realization that contrary to economic theory many firms are not perfect optimisers. They postulate that firms often do not optimise resource allocation because they are caught in a "business as usual" mentality. Main page: Education for sustainable development. Education must be revisited in light of a renewed vision of sustainable human and social development that is both equitable and viable.

When nations ensure that such an education is accessible to all throughout their lives, a quiet revolution is set in motion: education becomes the engine of sustainable development and the key to a better world.

We can make sure Globalization 4.0 leaves no one behind. This is how

It has been argued that since the s, the concept of sustainable development has changed from "conservation management" to "economic development", whereby the original meaning of the concept has been stretched somewhat. In the s, the international community realised that many African countries needed national plans to safeguard wildlife habitats, and that rural areas had to confront the limits imposed by soil, climate and water availability. This was a strategy of conservation management. In the s, however, the focus shifted to the broader issues of the provisioning of basic human needs, community participation as well as appropriate technology use throughout the developing countries and not just in Africa.

This was a strategy of economic development, and the strategy was carried even further by the Brundtland Commission 's report on Our Common Future when the issues went from regional to international in scope and application. But shifting the focus of sustainable development from conservation to development has had the imperceptible effect of stretching the original forest management term of sustainable yield from the use of renewable resources only like forestry , to now also accounting for the use of non-renewable resources like minerals.

Thus, environmental economist Kerry Turner has argued that literally, there can be no such thing as overall "sustainable development" in an industrialised world economy that remains heavily dependent on the extraction of earth's finite stock of exhaustible mineral resources: "It makes no sense to talk about the sustainable use of a non-renewable resource even with substantial recycling effort and use rates.

Any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to exhaustion of the finite stock. In effect, it has been argued that the industrial revolution as a whole is unsustainable. One critic has argued that the Brundtland Commission promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with the ambiguous and insubstantial concept of "sustainable development" attached as a public relations slogan: [7] : 94—99 The report on Our Common Future was largely the result of a political bargaining process involving many special interest groups, all put together to create a common appeal of political acceptability across borders.

After World War II, the notion of "development" had been established in the West to imply the projection of the American model of society onto the rest of the world. In the s and s, this notion was broadened somewhat to also imply human rights, basic human needs and finally, ecological issues. The emphasis of the report was on helping poor nations out of poverty and meeting the basic needs of their growing populations—as usual. This issue demanded more economic growth, also in the rich countries, who would then import more goods from the poor countries to help them out—as usual.

When the discussion switched to global ecological limits to growth , the obvious dilemma was left aside by calling for economic growth with improved resource efficiency, or what was termed "a change in the quality of growth". However, most countries in the West had experienced such improved resource efficiency since the earlyth century already and as usual; only, this improvement had been more than offset by continuing industrial expansion, to the effect that world resource consumption was now higher than ever before—and these two historical trends were completely ignored in the report.

Taken together, the policy of perpetual economic growth for the entire planet remained virtually intact. Since the publication of the report, the ambiguous and insubstantial slogan of "sustainable development" has marched on worldwide. This article incorporates text from a free content work.

To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mode of human development. Main articles: Sustainability and History of sustainability. See also: Planetary boundaries and Triple bottom line. See also: Ecological engineering.

See also: Sustainable agriculture. Man's economic system viewed as a subsystem of the global environment. Carrying capacity Ecological market failure Ecological model of competition Ecosystem services Embodied energy Energy accounting Entropy pessimism Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare Natural capital Spaceship Earth Steady-state economy Sustainability, 'weak' vs 'strong' Uneconomic growth. Boulding E. Related topics. See also: Ecological economics.

Main article: Environmental economics. Main articles: Smart grid and Sustainable energy. See also: Appropriate technology , Environmental engineering , and Environmental technology. See also: Sustainable transport. See also: Corporate sustainability. See also: Sustainable architecture. See also: Environmental politics , Environmental governance , and Sustainability metrics and indices. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Sustainable development goals. Main articles: Ecological footprint and Sustainability measurement. This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. Please integrate the section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the material. August This section is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view.

Agroecology Applied sustainability Circles of Sustainability Circular economy Computational sustainability Conservation biology Conservation development Cradle-to-cradle Cultural footprint Development Studies Ecological economics Ecological modernization Ecologically sustainable development Environmental issue Environmental justice Environmental racism Farmer Research Committee Gender and development Green development Micro-sustainability Outline of sustainability Purple economy Regenerative design Social sustainability Sustainable coffee Sustainable fishery Sustainable forest management Sustainable land management Sustainable living Sustainable redevelopment Sustainable yield Sustainopreneurship Weak and strong sustainability Zero-carbon city.

Applied Geography. Kerry In Turner, R. Kerry ed. Sustainable Environmental Management. London: Belhaven Press. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. New York: The Viking Press. Steady-state economics 2nd ed. London: Earthscan Publications. In Meuleman, Louis ed. Advancing Sustainability Governance. Heidelberg: Springer.

Globalisation and Sustainable Development - CurtinX on edX

Understanding Sustainable Development 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

Retrieved 26 November Kahle, Eda Gurel-Atay, Eds Communicating Sustainability for the Green Economy. New York: M. Champaign-Urbana: University of Illinois. The Age of Sustainable Development. New York: Columbia University Press. United Nations. Economic Development, 2nd edition. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Environment, Development and Sustainability. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. Global Public Health: Ecological Foundations.

The G20, climate action and economic globalisation: An agenda

Oxford University Press. Building Research. Babovic Journal of Hydroinformatics. Hardin, G. The question is how best to raise awareness of the crucial role of value systems in the struggle to achieve sustainable development, and to operationalize existing and evolving ethical principles to ensure that they are fully integrated into and guide public policy, international relations, economic systems and individual behaviour.

An effective global framework: Does the international community lack a global framework capable of articulating global environmental and social rights and responsibilities? The Security Council of the United Nations and the World Trade Organization are global governance regimes empowered with legally binding dispute settlement mechanisms and the authority to impose sanctions, yet they are perceived by many to be: dominated by strong national interests, undemocratic and inadequate for the role of defending sustainable development objectives. A genuinely democratic and just global framework is needed to translate ethical principles into meaningful law and policy, supported by effective regulatory and enforcement mechanisms.

Integration and partnership: In an increasingly complex world of multiple power bases and changing roles of state and non-state actors, innovative partnerships, dialogue and coalitions are required. The underlying rationale and ethical base of the sustainable development model is strikingly different from that of globalization. Sustainability requires regulation and cooperation, while globalization encourages deregulation and competition.

The invisible hand was expected to promote the greater good by enabling individuals to participate in the global economy as consumers via a monetary-based voting system. However, what has materialized is a system that facilitates grossly unbalanced distributions of wealth and the domination of profit over ethics.

Today there are no mechanisms which can effectively redistribute wealth at the international level, nor are there the means to mitigate the ecological and social costs of globalization, which fall largely on those who do not enjoy its benefits. Major international economic institutions often base their decisions solely on financial considerations, which do not take into account important data about the health of citizens, access to education, environmental degradation, urban conditions, etc. Trade rights versus human rights: The promotion of a free trade agenda over a fair trade agenda is generating deep concern.

The power of the WTO raises questions about the dominance of commercial and trade rights over basic human rights. In addition, the hierarchy of rights and obligations at the international level is opaque, leaving too great a margin for the potential subjugation of basic human needs to special interests. In addition, the WTO has not yet proven itself effective in promoting international trade rules supportive of sustainable development, as seen in the continuing debates on perverse subsidies, insufficient market access for developing country products, food security issues, etc.

These trade issues directly hinder sustainable development, harm the environment, aggravate, and in some cases, augment poverty. Inconsistency between the global trade regime and labour policy: The international economy is based on global trade law, but not a global labour market. The model of the free market, as reflected by the unrestricted movement of labour and goods has generated a number of inconsistencies.

Sustainable Development - Making Globalisation Work for People and the Planet -

While trade barriers against the free trade of goods and services are increasingly dismantled, developed nations are constructing higher and higher walls to prevent the free flow of labour from developing countries. The competition model often encourages businesses to maximize their profits by cutting costs as much as possible, leading to unethical and unsustainable business practices such as the exploitation of the labour force, pollution and manipulation of local government. Voluntary corporate initiatives: The growing loss of trust between the public and corporations is having a negative impact on profits.

The lack of corporate transparency is leading to negative public images and deteriorating public relations. Accountability for trans-national corporations: Trans-national corporations, due to their recognized power, are under particular scrutiny for both real and perceived deficiencies in accountability, transparency and regulation, as well as violation of human rights and inordinate influence over national governments and, by extension, international agreements.

Given their enormous size and influence, trans-national corporations are facing strong pressure to adhere to ethical norms in support of sustainable development. Promotion of unsustainable consumption: The promotion of unsustainable consumption patterns has been partially blamed on advertising by businesses which adhere to a system in which profit is valued above all else. Pursuit of sales is encouraging businesses to promote a culture that desires material goods as a way to reach personal fulfilment.

Whether or not this mistrust is justified, there are many who critique the negative role that the advertising industry plays in promoting a culture of conspicuous consumption. While advertising plays a very important role in enabling consumers to make informed choices, the ethical challenge is to determine at what level the media is responsible for its role in shaping consumer attitudes towards sustainability.

Responsibility versus profitability: The media faces the daily business challenge of selling its information under competitive circumstances. It not only confronts the predicament of choosing which information will sell, but also raises the ethical question of what information the media should provide versus what it is most profitable to provide.

Reaching the people: There is a demand for news and information about sustainable development, but it must be presented in a way that captures the interest, emotions and imagination of the public. At the moment there is little signposting to help people find ways to translate concern into action.

Environmental Agendas

People need to be made more aware of the ways in which they are directly affected, and how they can use their power positively as members of their community, as consumers and as voters. Ability to function effectively: Journalists need four conditions in which to operate effectively: freedom of access to information; freedom of expression; personal professional ethics; and independence. Without these, the provision of information based on ethical norms has little meaning. The pursuit of national interests often leads to the selective application of ethical principles depending on the priorities of powerful nations.

Electoral pressures It is difficult for politicians to reconcile their accountability to the local electorate and to the wider community. They must balance the local and immediate interests of the electorate with the interests of contributing to wider sustainable development goals. Erosion of Sovereignty The new generation of global survival problems has revealed the fundamental limitations of the Nation-State as well as the weakening of national sovereignty.

This in turn has generated a need for stronger forms of multilateral cooperation and solutions due to the inevitably limited success of unilateral approaches to transborder threats such as disease, terrorism, immigration, environmental destruction, etc. Sovereignty has been further diminished by the economic dependence and interdependence of States, the creation of power vacuums and the development of multiple power centres above, below and across the national level.

Corrupt and despotic regimes The transition to sustainable development will be impossible where power and wealth are concentrated in the hands of a small number of elites who exploit their people and who have little interest in abiding by international norms and standards. It must incorporate a more democratic formula that reflects the principles of transparency, participation, coherence, accountability, justice and efficiency. The United Nations Security Council is being increasingly bypassed by those states seeking to manage international security issues. Its anachronistic design must be re-evaluated and reformed in the light of the new international order in order to regain legitimacy in the eyes of the public.

Self interests versus global welfare: International organizations that were created to promote global public welfare have often ended up in the control of those who want to shape the world according to their own vision. There is a need for honest appraisal and restructuring to combat the often fatal conflict between the influence of self-interest and the ideals that public-interest institutions pursue.

Many years of work and negotiations came to naught. Instead, there has been a strong opposite trend, which is now dominant, to continuously reduce and remove regulations that governments have over corporations, and to grant corporations increased rights and powers whilst removing the authority of states to impose controls over their behaviour and operations. The Uruguay Round has already granted far higher standards of intellectual property rights protection to the TNCs, thus facilitating further their monopolisation of technology and ability to earn huge rents through higher prices.

Other proposals on competition policy and government procurement would give them further rights of access to business in developing countries. The ability of governments to regulate the operations and effects of TNCs and companies in general is being severely curtailed. It is most unlikely that businesses will voluntarily curb their own practices to be in line with sustainable development, especially with the current intensification of competition.

The failure of political leadership. There has also been a weakening of political leadership to address environmental, social or development issues. Instead, these governments are meeting the demands of their corporations to promote liberalisation and to champion their interests domestically and internationally. Thus, at international negotiations, whether at the WTO or at the UN, Northern governments promote proposals that widen the rights of TNCs, whilst blocking or diluting principles and points that are made on behalf of sustainable development.

In the international arena, Southern governments, individually and as a group, are generally inadequately prepared for negotiations, compared to the Northern governments. Despite the dramatic expansion of the importance of international organisations and processes in determining national policies, the political leadership and bureaucracy in most developing countries have not devoted adequate human and financial resources to preparations for international negotiations. Such a situation is particularly dangerous when the negotiations involve legally-binding agreements, as in the WTO.

Many political leaders and bureaucrats may privately agree that the present state of affairs on environment and development is negative and requires drastic reforms. However, they go along with the big tide of liberalisation and cater to the demands and interests of the business elite.

However, whilst sustainable development is at a low ebb, there are also signs of its revival as a paradigm. The limitations and failures of globalisation have caused a major public backlash that may eventually result in some policy changes. Pro-sustainability forces within governments in developing countries are becoming more aware of their right or responsibility to try to rectify the present problems, including changing some of the rules in the WTO.

The WSSD provides a good opportunity to refocus attention of the establishment and the public not only on the problems but also on the need to shift paradigms. Reaffirming the Rio spirit and commitments. The basis for the Rio compact was clear, and remains so today. The South is hampered from meeting the basic needs of its people by its unfavourable position in the world economy, and its national resources are being drained through falling commodity prices, heavy debt burdens and other outflows.

Development goals, poverty eradication and provision for basic needs are or should be their top priorities. Environmental concerns should be integrated with and not detracted from these development objectives. Thus, sustainable development would involve not only ecological practices that can meet the needs of future generations, but also a change in production and consumption patterns in an equitable manner whereby resources which are currently being wasted are conserved and re-channelled to meet the needs of everyone today as well as those of future generations.