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At the Battle of the Philippine Sea , heavy aircraft losses left the Japanese carrier fleet ineffectual and forced the Japanese to finally commit their dreadnoughts, both old and new, to the upcoming Leyte Campaign. The objective in this "decisive battle" was to stop the Allies from capturing the Philippines, which would cut off the Japanese oil supply and render their navy useless. The Center Force of five fast battleships attacked from the north; the Southern Force of two slower old battleships attacked from the south.

In the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea on 24 October , the Center Force came under attack by American aircraft and Musashi , sister ship to Yamato , was sunk long before she could come within gun range of the American fleet. Seventh Fleet [ citation needed ].


Yamashiro was hit by the US battleships and retired without being able to fire on them. After the battleships had ceased fire she was sunk by a torpedo fired by a US destroyer. American destroyers and aircraft attacked the battleships, enabling Taffy 3 to disengage and forcing the Center Force to withdraw. This battle marked the only time Yamato engaged enemy ships with her primary or secondary batteries. These attacks targeted major factories as well as the cities' harbors and nearby rail infrastructure.

During the Soviet -Finnish Winter War , the Soviet battleships Marat and Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya made several attempts to neutralize the Finnish coastal batteries to facilitate a full naval blockade. The Soviets inflicted little damage on the Finnish positions, and the defenders hit back, claiming at least one hit on Marat. During the German assault on the Soviet Union , the Soviet battleships served as convoy escorts during the evacuation of Tallinn , and as floating batteries during the siege of Leningrad.

Still, the vessel was able to serve as a battery for the remainder of the siege. The Soviets later refloated Marat and both it and Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya served until the s. With the German capital-ship raiders sunk or forced to remain in port, shore bombardment became the focus of Allied battleships in the Atlantic. Six battleships came together as part of Operation Neptune , in support of the D-Day landings in June The sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse off the coast of Malaya in demonstrated that even the most modern battleships could not hold off aerial attacks without decent aerial defenses.

The British HACS fire control system had been rendered inoperable by the extreme heat and humidity of the Malaya tropical climate, and the anti-aircraft artillery had managed to shoot down only a handful of attackers. An aircraft carrier's combat air patrol proved to be the most effective form of defense against enemy bombers. Nonetheless, a modern fast battleship could provide a vital point defense against attackers that broke through the fighter screen.

The North Carolina and South Dakota demonstrated just that in the battles of the Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz Islands , respectively, with North Carolina downing between 7 and 14 planes, while South Dakota shot down between 26 and The battleships' presence was crucial during these engagements in , as the U. No American battleships were lost or seriously damaged by aerial attacks in open seas in World War II.

By , Admiral Raymond A. Spruance had arrayed his forces in a complex defense formation. The first line of protection was a radar-vectored combat air patrol , and any attackers who managed to get through would face anti-aircraft fire from a line of screening battleships and cruisers. This exacted such a heavy toll on the Japanese during the Battle of the Philippine Sea that they failed to cause any significant damage to their main targets, the aircraft carriers.

The most damage that the Japanese caused was a bomb hit on South Dakota which caused many casualties but did little damage to the battleship. At the outbreak of World War II, most battleships had large anti-aircraft batteries. The battleships used the same light AA guns the Allies used autocannons such as the Bofors 40 mm gun and Oerlikon 20 mm cannon as those on smaller ships, but in greater number. The later development of proximity fuses and radar vastly increased the effectiveness of these batteries.

Post—World War I battleships, particularly British and American, had discarded single purpose secondary batteries mounted in casemates used to engage surface targets in favour of turret-mounted dual purpose secondary batteries 5-inch or 6-inch caliber. Secondaries were initially designed to deal with rushing destroyers and torpedo boats, but there arose a need for heavy anti-aircraft armament as the potency of aircraft grew, particularly dive bombers and torpedo bombers. The rationale was that it is unlikely that a battleship would be simultaneously facing both destroyers and aircraft, but it would take up too much space to have separate types of guns to deal with both threats.

Both weapons had similar calibers and so they could be merged into a single battery type, and the turret mountings were less susceptible to flooding and had a better firing arc than casemates. The space saved from combining the two types of guns added to simplification of supply, increased deck armor coverage, stowage of other equipment, more light anti-aircraft batteries, and other needs.

The Nelson -class battleship , incorporating many concepts from the G3 battlecruiser , was the first design to include a dual-purpose secondary battery, useful against both surface and airborne attacks. Compared to light AA they had a slower rate of fire, but they had a greater range and sufficient punch to knock enemy planes out of the sky. They could also fire into the sea to create waterspouts that slapped low-flying torpedo bombers with tonnes of water. Battleships could mount many more of these DP batteries than cruisers or carriers.

German vessels such as the Bismarck class possessed dedicated secondary anti-ship batteries as well as dedicated heavy anti-aircraft batteries, rather than adopting the dual-purpose secondaries like the British or Americans. Bismarck for instance had a battery of twelve 5. The cannon could be used against ships only, as they could not be elevated to fire on high-level targets. This tended to complicate ammunition supplies, take up more space, and reduce the numbers of both guns reducing the anti-ship or anti-aircraft broadside.

The Imperial Japanese Navy suffered similar problems to the Germans', as their secondaries were too slow to track aircraft. The Japanese even used the "San Shiki" the Beehive Model 13 anti-aircraft shell for the main gun armament of the Yamato -class battleships , which would have in theory functioned as a super-sized "shotgun", though this was not considered a success. In the aftermath of the Battle of Jutland and post—World War I era, designers began drawing up armor schemes that protected against ordnance dropped by aircraft or submarines.

World War I ships fired at direct 90 degree trajectories. The introduction of high-angle battleship fire and plane bombings forced shipbuilders to consider adding significant armor to the top of battleships. The five ships of the American Tennessee and Colorado classes had considerably improved underwater hull protection over previous battleships, as the result of extensive experimentation and testing.

The new class of Battleship was to include 40" of armored plating. Not surprisingly, as many World War I battleships lacked such a protection system, they fared poorly against torpedoes, which in World War II were increasingly being delivered by submarines and aircraft. Battleships had an armored belt along the waterline. It was intended to stop shells that hit their sides and to prevent flooding by underwater explosions due to near misses. Main belt thickness along the waterline ranged from 10" to 15", upper belt thickness ranged from 4" to 10". Most ships of the World War II period had a sloped main belt internal in some classes , to increase resistance to incoming shells; and no upper belt, to save weight.

Thicknesses of belt armor ranged from 10" for Strasbourg class - large battlecruisers rather than pure battleships - or from 12" South Dakota and Iowa classes to 16" Yamato class. World War I ships had a light upper armored deck to protect the secondary guns and a main armored deck whose sides sloped down to meet the lower edge of the belt, but their thickness was usually no more than 1.

As soon as long-range engagements became common and aerial threats increased, crash programs to improve deck and turret roof protection started. US Navy "all-or-nothing" armor layout introduced a flat heavy armor deck, which abutted the upper edges of the armored belt, and light armored weather and lower decks: this design was used by all World War II ships except Reichsmarine units, that kept a heavier lower deck and a lighter upper deck. Main deck armor thickness ranged from 4" to 6" or even 9" for Yamato class , usually increased over magazines: lighter decks were 1.

From the lessons of Jutland, the protection scheme incorporated a sophisticated torpedo defense system TDS. Some were upgraded with anti-torpedo blisters , though these were much inferior to the battleship's armored belt. During the Pearl Harbor attack, TDS and damage control counterflooding saved West Virginia from nine torpedo hits, while Oklahoma , which lacked it, capsized after just three.

For the Attack on Pearl Harbor the JNAF adapted 16" shells from Nagato -class battleships into an aerial bomb specifically designed to penetrate the deck armor of the American battleships. For torpedo bombers to make their runs successfully, fighters strafed the battleship to suppress AA guns, and dive bombers wreaked havoc on the upper decks, destroying AA weapons and fire control systems. Pilots were also instructed to focus on one side of the ship, causing massive flooding which was difficult to counteract, leading to the ship capsizing. A bow hit was deadly, since the onrushing water from the battleship's high speed could wrench the hole open wider and collapse compartment bulkheads, which was why Yamato ' s sister, Musashi , foundered at Sibuyan Sea.

Fleet Air Arm planned to release their armor-piercing bombs from above a certain height so they would penetrate Tirpitz' s thick armor during Operation Tungsten. Kamikaze were much more successful against lesser-armored ships. There were limits to the battleship's protection scheme, since it could not keep pace with the faster pace of developments in ordnance.

But unbeknownst to U. In a well-planned attack, fighter planes strafed the battleship to suppress the AA guns, while dive bombers used their armor-piercing bombs to cause topside damage and havoc. The fighters and dive bombers, however, were diversions to allow the delivery of aerial torpedoes. On 26 November, the Naval Board distributed lists of Sydney ' s ship's company to all district naval offices. In Germany, news of the battle was assembled from communications intercepts during the search for survivors, which was combined with Allied news articles to assemble an account of the battle and published in early for internal consumption by German officials.

Interrogation of the German survivors to discover the fate of Sydney began on 25 November. After the main interrogations were completed, the Germans were moved from Fremantle to Murchison, Victoria during late December and early January: the officers aboard the liner Duntroon , the sailors overland on two trains. One sailor died in captivity from lung cancer on 24 March , and was buried in the Tatura war cemetery. Sydney was granted the battle honour " Kormoran " in recognition of the damage done to Kormoran.

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Following the government report into the Australian cruiser's loss, which recommended that a seminar be organised to again attempt to identify the most likely search area for the warships, the HMAS Sydney Location Seminar was organised by the RAN's Sea Power Centre and held at the Western Australian Maritime Museum. American shipwreck hunter David Mearns first learned of the battle and mutual destruction of Sydney and Kormoran during a conference in , and started studying the battle in Mearns' plan was to determine a 'search box' for Kormoran by plotting the possible starting points of the two rafts from the raider through a reverse drift analysis.

Geosounder returned to Geraldton on 20 March, but delays in installing and testing the ROV prevented departure until 29 March, with the ship sailing through the path of Cyclone Pancho. In April , an expedition to the wrecks was made by Curtin University and the Western Australian Museum , with the objective of using 3D imaging to map the wrecksites for further study, and to determine if any deterioration since the discovery requires the development of a conservation management plan.

The first collected historical account of the engagement was published in , in George Hermon Gill 's Royal Australian Navy, — , the first of two RAN-oriented volumes in the government-sponsored Australia in the War of — series. In , the HMAS Sydney Forum was convened by the Western Australian Museum; its goals were to seek a consensus view of the battle, and collect suggestions on how and where searches for Sydney and Kormoran should occur. Over the next few years, several books about the battle were published. Frame's book was updated and republished in Military historian Dr Tom Lewis OAM, then a serving naval officer, wrote several analytical articles about the controversies surrounding the battle, all of which argued that the Kormoran account was right.

Lewis argued if the wreck damage matched the article then it would show the Kormoran account was accurate. Following the discovery of the two ships, the damage did indeed match the article. Lewis also argued in "The truth about Sydney — conspiracy theorists should crawl back into the bilges.

Following the discovery of the wrecks, a second inquiry into the loss of Sydney was held, this time by the Department of Defence. Rumours that the battle was not what it seemed commenced almost as soon as Sydney failed to reach Fremantle on schedule, some emanating from the highest levels in the administration, [] but it was not until Montgomery's Who Sank The Sydney? Much of the controversy surrounding the battle stemmed from disbelief that a modified merchant ship could totally defeat a modern cruiser, with most theories describing how the Germans deceitfully gained the advantage.

These theories contend that Detmers acted illegally by firing before Kormoran raised her battle ensign , flew a white flag of surrender to trick Burnett into relaxing, or used false signal flags to indicate a medical or engineering emergency and lure Sydney in. All German accounts indicate that Kormoran lowered the Dutch flag and raised the German war ensign before the order to fire was given, although general distrust of German claims, plus the statement in Detmers' autobiography that it took six seconds to raise the flag, decamouflage, and start firing, led to questions. Winter traces the origin of the "surrender or distress" theory to a single newspaper article written just after the battle by a reporter with no access to the prisoners or naval intelligence.

The Cole inquiry concluded that the German ensign was raised before the first shell was fired. The claim of Japanese involvement, specifically a submarine operating with Kormoran , is based on several elements. The German survivors were found with milk bottles bearing Japanese labels.

According to Montgomery, the involvement of a submarine is supported by numerous sightings of submarines or submarine-like objects in Australian waters, particularly a sighting off Townsville in late October of six "strange boats" that surfaced, sprouted wings, and flew off; he interpreted this as a floatplane-carrying Japanese submarine , which may have reached Carnarvon in time to attack Sydney. On several occasions, Japanese broadcasts stated that Sydney had been captured and towed to Japan, or that personnel were interned in Japanese prisoner-of-war camps. There were suggestions over the years the Japanese submarine I , sunk off Darwin by HMAS Deloraine on 20 January — some three months after the loss of the Sydney — contained information about the real fate of the Sydney , or may even herself have been involved.

Dr Lewis, who wrote Sensuikan I , and Darwin's Submarine I , contributed to the Cole inquiry, arguing strongly that this was impossible. HMS Jaguar attacked Chantilly, causing 2 killed and 4 wounded, leading to the convoy's capture. This radio programme which had five men discussing such diverse subjects as philosophy, art and science was surprisingly a great success, frequently having a regular audience of ten million listeners.

After sun down, Wellington bombers of No. Troops of the Australian 6th Division began to prepare for the ground assault. As the military equipment destined for British troops in Egypt went down with the ship, survivors took to lifeboats and would eventually make land at the Cape Verde Islands or rescue by other ships. This would be U's eighth and final sinking during the day-long patrol. U was slightly damaged but was able to continue with the patrol without needing immediate repairs.

Throughout the rescue the child was heard singing "God Save the King". He later explained that his father, a coal miner, had told him that when men were buried underground they kept singing to guide the rescuers, and this was the only tune that he knew the words. At hours, Australian 6th Division began its assault from the west, clearing anti-tank obstacles for the 23 tanks of the British 7th Royal Tank Regiment that began attacking at hours. The ground forces would penetrate 2 miles into the Italian lines.

The granary on Princes Wharf was destroyed, along with most of the 8, tons of grain inside. Jokingly emulating Winston Churchill, British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden said "[n]ever has so much been surrendered by so many, to so few. In the battle for Bardia, the Italians suffered 1, killed, 3, wounded, and 36, taken prisoner; 2, Italians were able to withdraw to Tobruk, Libya.

Australians suffered killed and wounded. The Allies captured a large quantity of Italian equipment, including 26 coastal guns, 7 medium guns, field guns, 26 anti-aircraft guns, 41 infantry guns, anti-tank guns, 12 medium tanks, tankettes, trucks, and water pumps capable of producing tons of fresh water per day. Before Shakespeare sank, her return fire hit Cappellini's aft gun and killed gunner Sergeant Ferruccio Azzolin.

Cappellini rescued 22 survivors and took them to Sal Island nearby. She would be under repair at Chatham, England until 3 Oct. It was sadly ironic that a woman who navigated her way solo from England to Australia got lost in bad weather. Running out of fuel, she baled out thinking she was over London. Landing in the freezing water, she was dragged under a rescue boat by her parachute and chopped to death by the propellers. Her body was never found. Antonis was scuttled when 4, tons of British coal was found on board. All 29 crew and 7 sheep were taken on board Kormoran.

Patrols were now conducted 10 miles west of Tobruk at Acroma. Italian torpedo boats Clio and Castore counterattacked, damaging HMS Rover, putting her out of commission for the following 13 months for repairs at Malta. Guilio Cesare was badly damaged by 3 near misses but Vittorio Veneto was hit without serious damage.

Both ships would be moved to La Spezia, Italy and repaired, out of the range of the Malta bombers. Overnight, a patrol reached the Italian defensive perimeter. On the same day, 12 Italian C. The Guildhall was heavily damaged and would remain closed until At hours, the convoy made rendezvous with the Mediterranean Fleet with two battleships, one carrier, and seven destroyers.

At hours, German Stuka dive bombers, newly arrived to the theater, attacked HMS Illustrious, hitting her with 6 bombs, destroying the elevator and starting fires in the hangar deck, killing ; she also sailed to Malta to receive repairs. Illustrious being out of service meant the Axis now had air superiority in the theater.

He promptly ordered draft contingency plans for the commitment of a British expeditionary force to the Greek mainland. Southampton was abandoned by the survivors at hours, then was scuttled by a torpedo from cruiser HMS Orion at hours. Further east, the Allied convoy Excess, which the cruisers were protecting, reached their destinations of Malta, Egypt, and Greece. SS-Wiking Division. Electricity would be restored on the following day, but gas would not be restored for three weeks. Pinguin captured 20, tons of whale oil and 10, tons of fuel oil with this success.

Papagos asked Wavell for 9 divisions of British troops plus air support, but Wavell only offered 2 or 3 divisions. Papagos, who thought 2 to 3 divisions was too few to effectively deter a German invasion while still putting Greece in an indebted position, rejected the offer. Cappellini suffered three casualties and was badly damaged, but was able to sink Eumaeus, killing She was towed into Liverpool for repairs. Survivors drifted in 6 lifeboats, but only 5 lifeboats, containing , were found and rescued.


The Thais were unable to pursue the retreating French, as their forward tanks were kept in check by the guns of the French Foreign Legion. Four lifeboats were launched before Almeda Star sank, but when seven British destroyers arrived, none of them were found, thus all aboard were lost crew, 29 gunners, and passengers. Marcello suffered damage in her forward trim tank, forcing her end her war patrol to return to base.

She was to remain out of action for three months for repairs. The ship, along with her cargo of 11, tons of crude oil, was sent to France as a prize ship. This allowed the column led by British General William Platt to march south. Hitler noted that he would launch an invasion of Greece if British troops there began to threaten the oil refineries at Ploiesti, Romania.

At hours, 25 miles south of Pireaus, Italian submarine Neghelli attacked, damaging Clan Cumming with a torpedo. One Stuka aircraft was shot down by a Fulmar aircraft, which was also shot down later in the battle. Furious at the partisan activity, Hitler had decreed that for every German soldier wounded in attacks, civilians would be executed. Australian engineers cleared a path for 18 British Matilda tanks and a few captured Italian tanks to pass through, leading infantrymen.

Blenheim aircraft flew overhead throughout the day to provide support. After nightfall, the headquarters of the Australian 19th Brigade offered Manella a ceasefire, but it was rejected, as the Italian general had orders from Benito Mussolini to fight until the last man. Overnight, Italian bombers attacked the British forward base; some bombs fell on the buildings holding prisoners of war, killing Italians. British aircraft sank Italian liner Liguria.

Before the end of the day, Admiral Massimilian Vietina surrendered to the Australian troops. Atlantis soon arrived, stopping Mandasor with gunfire, killing 6. A launch from Atlantic drove away sharks with machine gun fire as the Germans rescued 82 survivors. Mandasor was eventually sunk with a torpedo.

As the He aircraft attempted to land in the water for recovery, the rough seas caused her to capsize and become lost. Four Allied cruisers later arrived on the scene in response, but Atlantis had already departed. Meanwhile, en route to Derna, Libya, Allied troops encountered units of the newly organized Italian Special Armoured Brigade and defeated them near Mechili, destroying 9 Italian tanks at the cost of 7 British tanks.

He had arrived to take up his new post as the British ambassador to the United States. Italian troops withdrew miles behind the Juba River in response. They were discovered and attacked by 10 German Stuka dive bombers and 2 Italian S. HMS Latona was hit by a kg bomb and sank at when the fire detonated the magazine; 27 were killed. HMS Hero was damaged by three near misses. Two torpedoes were fired at HMS Arabis, both of which missed.

At hours, Lurigethan was hit and sank, killing HMS Arabis picked up 35 survivors. Survivors were picked up by Italian torpedo boat Orione. Fearing this might lead to the arrival of a stronger British fleet, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau turned to the north, attempting to enter the Atlantic Ocean via the Denmark Strait instead. Duisberg was towed to Tripoli, Libya for repairs. The effective date of the cease fire to be signed on 31 Jan would backdate to this date. John D. Korizis took over as the new Premier of Greece upon his predecessor's death.

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This combined with British advances through Eritrea made the Italian armies in the Horn of Africa increasingly in danger of being surrounded. Walker, and Greek ship Aikaterini. At hours, U sank British ship West Wales. At hours, U sank Egyptian ship Sesostris.

U also attempted to attack, but she was chased off by British destroyers. Rushpool was the sixth and final ship sunk in a series of German submarine attacks in 24 hours, totaling 33, tons. Murdaugh in command. The crew was took to the lifeboat, which was never found. The attack failed to damage the facilities. One Swordfish aircraft was shot down, with its crew of 3 taken prisoner. The remaining boxes, save five, were salvaged in A German Fw aircraft arrived later in the day and bombed the ship, causing damage. At hours, U surfaced near Dione II and engaged in a brief gun battle.

At dawn, British 7th Armoured Division departed from Mechili, Libya to move across the desert toward Jebel El Akhdar miles away in an attempt to cut off the Italian retreat. In the evening, the British 4th Armoured Brigade reached Beda Fomm 10 miles north of the roadblocks, preventing Italian retreat to the east. He was one of only six survivors when the Asphodel was torpedoed and sunk on 10 Mar She was assigned to the Sasebo Naval District.

The 25,strong Italian Tenth Army formally surrendered before the end of the day. On the other side of the Gorge, Indian 4th Division launched an attempt to flank the Italian troops at Dologorodoc Fort by moving through the Scescilembi Valley. The air crews reported to have caused damage, but in actuality no hits were scored. Four merchant ships and a training vessel were sunk, 18 ships were damaged, harbor facilities and nearby industrial areas were damaged, and the cathedral was also hit.

The British lost 1 Swordfish torpedo bomber. Italian battleships Vittorio Veneto, Cesare, and Doria, supported by cruiser and destroyers, were launched to intercept the British fleet but failed to find them. Because it was escorted by British battleship Ramilies, the German fleet withdrew at hours per orders not to engage British capital ships. U had also reported the sighting to aircraft based in Bordeaux, France, which led to the arrival of five Fw Condor bombers, which sank British ships Jura, Dagmar I, and Brittanic and Norwegian ship Tejo.

The passengers were survivors of the ship Courland, which had just been sunken by U on the previous day. They were to plant explosives on one of the columns to stop supplies of fresh water to nearby military and civilian centers. Admiral Hipper would soon detect the rest of the convoy on radar at the distance of 15 kilometers.

The crew of 41 was never seen again. She probably ran into a minefield or was sunk by German minesweepers M-2, M, and M All but one were captured during their escape, remaining prisoners of war until The aqueduct they destroyed would soon be repaired and returned to service. Woods, RN departed from Valetta, Malta for her 11th war patrol. She was to proceed to the Gulf of Salerno to pick up a group of airborne commando troops participating in Operation Colossus, near the mouth of the River Sele.

The pick up was cancelled when it was feared that the Italians might intercept the submarine. Marsham, RN heard a loud explosion and observed a destroyer at 8, yards moving slowly. Closing on the submarine was a German convoy: Arta 2,ton , Maritza 2,ton , and Heraklea 1,ton , escorted by the destroyer Baleno which had sailed from Taranto for Naples, Italy. Oriani had taken over as escort leader and ordered Baleno to zigzag ahead and the latter was probably the destroyer observed by Rover.

The submarine dived to 90 feet and heard two destroyers passing over her but was not attacked. The convoy continued undisturbed and the destroyers observed nothing. The submarine chaser Albatros coming from Messina, Sicily, Italy was guided to the scene by the seaplane but failed to find the British submarine. Collet, RN attacked a large transport east of Kerkenah in Tunisia.

The ship was the Arcturus 2,ton , she was in company with Alicante 2,ton and the Ankara 4,ton being escorted by the Italian destroyer Turbine and Torpedo Boat Orsa heading for Tripoli, Libya. The Arcturus reported three deep explosions which were the torpedoes hitting the ocean floor. He warned the Committee that should Britain fall the United States would find itself at war in a month and advocated that every American bomber save training planes should be sent to Britain post-haste together with five or ten destroyers a month. At hours, Admiral Hipper broke off the attack as rain helped the remaining Allied transports escape.

Admiral Hipper had nearly expended all of her mm shells in this attack. Even when he was fatally wounded he still encouraged his men on to victory. Captain Ram would be posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. Italian destroyer Camicia Nera and torpedo boat Procione escorted the transports. According to Italian sources these were probably the old Italian merchants Florida II 3,ton , completed in , the Audace ; 1,ton and Pegli ; 1,ton escorted by the Italian torpedo boat Calliope.

No hits were obtained probably due to misfunctioning torpedoes. The Italian transport was initially abandoned by her crew but later re-boarded and salved, taking a week to be towed to Tripoli; she re-entered service as the Manfredo Campiero. They were also trying to create an anti-Axis agreement, which would soon be rebuffed by Yugoslavia and Turkey. U sank British tanker Clea at hours, killing the entire crew of U stopped British tanker Arthur F.

Corwin by two torpedoes, allowing U to sink her at hours, killing the entire crew of Two Albacore aircraft were shot down with six crew members taken prisoner. The tanker ran ashore, and the tug Salvatore Primo ton was sent to her assistance and was later joined by the tug Titano ton. In the mean time, torpedo boat Pleiadi sailed to hunt the submarine but made no contact. Instead, he began to plan for a larger offensive.

Brown with five torpedoes miles south of Iceland between and hours, eventually sinking the tanker. Under pressure from Germany, Turkey also agreed to not protest German troop movements through Bulgaria. However Erwin Rommel's sudden advance into the Cyrenaica of Libya would result in the Poles and 7th Australian Division being held back to defend Tobruk. He also demanded some soldiers to be released from the front to man tank factories. It began to patrol out of Tripoli, Libya. Two torpedoes were fired but no hits were obtained. The target was the German transport Heraklea 1,ton.

She was in convoy with the German merchants Arta 2,ton , Menes 5,ton and Maritza 2,ton escorted by the Italian destroyers Freccia and Saetta. Heraklea sighted the two torpedo tracks and turned sharply to starboard to comb the tracks. Advocate was to be sent to France as a prize ship. Before being taken prisoner, the crew radioed for help, which was received by British cruiser HMS Glasgow. Over the course of the three days, 35, incendiary bombs and high explosive bombs were dropped on Swansea, killing and wounding , but the strategically important docks and nearby oil refineries were relatively unaffected.

Italian ship Sabbia was damaged, but Ursula was damaged after being counterattacked by Italian torpedo boat Montanari. Sir Frederick, who had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in for his work in the development of Insulin, was, during the Second World War, investigating problems of aviators, such as blackout when they were subjected to gravitational forces while turning or diving.

At the time of his death he was on his way to England to conduct operational trials on the G-suit developed by his colleague Wilbur Franks. HMS Glasgow launched her seaplane to search for the German raider, but the aircraft would return without any findings. Heavily damaged by near misses, HMS Terror was abandoned by her crew at hours.

Just before midnight, U sank British ship Marslew 13 killed, 23 rescued and U sank British ship Anglo-Peruvian 29 lost, 17 rescued. The Greeks preferred to dig in along the Metaxas Line, while the British argued for a line further southwest along the Vermion Mountains and the Haliacmon River.

Ribbentrop argued that there was little worry regarding the United States as American possessions in Asia could be bypassed easily, but should the Americans decide to go to war, the Japanese Navy was vastly superior to the US Navy. Glenn T. Seaborg chemically identified the recently discovered new element Plutonium in the inch cyclotron at the University of California at Berkeley, California, United States. HMS Dainty was sunk by a kg bomb, killing The master Thomas Llewellyn Bradford and the chief officer Alfred Hodder were taken prisoner by the submarine.

The second officer E. Knight and 18 crew members landed at Ballyoughtraugh, County Kerry, Ireland, and the third officer and nine crew members landed near Berehaven, County Cork, Ireland. The convoy was traveling from Naples, Italy to Tripoli, Libya. Greening, RN. Blackburn, RN landed Royal Marines. However, the operation was a failure as Italian forces led by Admiral Luigi Biancheri reacted with vigour and retook the island. Browne, RN attacked a southbound enemy convoy north-west of Tripoli, Libya.

Two torpedoes were fired at one of the merchant vessels but they both missed. The convoy attacked was made up by German merchant vessels Ankara 4, tons , Marburg 7, tons , Kybfels 7, tons and Reichenfels 7, tons. They were escorted by the Italian destroyers Aviere, Geniere and the torpedo boat Castore.

Lampard either hit a mine and sank or was sunk by German motor torpedo boat S 12 miles off Lowestoft, Suffolk, England, United Kingdom. Exmoor put up a strong defence of her convoy, but after the explosion she sank quickly. Four officers, including her Commanding Officer, and men were lost with the ship; 32 survived. No ships of the convoy suffered loss or damage.

The minefield would be known as "Augsburg A". The codename for the raid was Operation Abstention. U was attacked by depth charges, which called for assistance in the form of Fw bombers of I. Gruppe KG 40 based in Bordeaux, France. The aircraft attacked from three different directions from to hours, sinking 7 ships without losing any aircraft. The victims of the Fw bombers were 4,ton British vessel Swinburne all survived , 7,ton British vessel Mahanada 3 killed , 4,ton British vessel Llanwern 27 killed , 8,ton Dutch merchant steamer Amstelland 1 killed , 4,ton Dutch merchant steamer Beursplein 21 killed , 4,ton Greek merchant steamer Kyriekoula all survived , and 2,ton Norwegian merchant steamer Solferino 3 killed.

The freighter was carrying 1, tons of cement from London to Grangemouth, Scotland, United Kingdom. The captain, 17 of the crew, along with 2 passengers, were lost. Only 3 survivors were picked up. At hours, two enemy aircraft machine gunned the ship's decks, coming in for four passes and the ship got three direct bomb hits on her starboard side, where deck plates and several plates in her side were blown out. The first explosion was in No. She had left Newport, Monmouthshire, Wales, United Kingdom, for Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, also in Wales, with a cargo of 2, tons of china clay and about tons of general cargo that same morning in order to join a westbound Atlantic convoy for St.

Johns, Newfoundland. All 36 crew survived the attack. The 26 aircraft that arrived attacked and reported success, though the actual results were questionable. They also transferred prisoners taken from Allied ships sunk on 22 Feb. She was to be renamed Monsun and pressed into German service.

The action was commenced to counter the British Operation Abstention. The two were later taken to the German prisoner of war camp Marlag und Milag Nord. Low clouds resulted in only 4 aircraft locating the battleship, and they failed to hit their target. To the north, German troops began to across into Bulgaria. The remaining 33 crew members took to a lifeboat; 12 of them would be killed when the lifeboat was accidentally sucked under corvette HMS Kingcup's bow, which had arrived to rescue them.

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In the afternoon, German aircraft returned and completed Anchises' sinking with bombs. The master, John Robert Potts and 26 crew members were lost from a total crew of Soon afterwards her engines broke down and she foundered with all on board being lost, which included 29 survivors from the Norwegian motor vessel Benjamin Franklin that had been torpedoed by German submarine U The Chief Engineer was killed in the blast.

Bulgaria was promised territories lost to Yugoslavia and Greece after WW1. The Italians suffered 3 killed all 3 were Libyan colonial troops , 4 wounded, and captured 29 Italians, Libyan colonial troops ; the French suffered 4 killed and 21 wounded. After sundown, the 12,ton British steam tanker Cadillac, built in , was on route from Aruba for Avonmouth, England, United Kingdom carrying a cargo of 17, tons of aviation spirit when she was torpedoed by U The highly flammable cargo immediately caught fire, causing a massive explosion and when the 8 tank blew up on the port side after about four minutes it illuminated all ships in the vicinity.

With the ship settling by the bow and blazing furiously on the port side a lot of the crew perished being unable to leave the ship, 35 crew were lost from a total crew of Meanwhile, U sank the ship Pacific; 34 were killed, 1 survived. Farben factory, and to expand the camp's agricultural and industrial output. On his way to London by rail he was met and welcomed by His Majesty the King. Near the end of the day at hours, U sank 4,ton Norwegian merchant steamer Augvald. Augvald was carrying 7, tons of steel, scrap iron and tractors bound for Kingston upon Hull in Britain from Halifax in Canada and due to bad weather had straggled from the convoy HX U fired a single G7a torpedo and hit the Augvald at the forward hold.

German Warships Vs British Convoy - Atlantic Fleet Sinking Ships

The heavily laden ship sank within a minute. Some survivors climbed onto wreckage and the Germans tried to question them but failed to understand them so sailed off. The master, Rolf Svensen and 28 crewmen died, including the 2 English mess boys, Stanley Scargill, aged 14, and Micheal Gouldon, aged He was taken to hospital in Greenock where he had to have one of his toes amputated due to frostbite. He also ordered the construction of defensive positions in the desert to the south to prevent the Allies from bypassing the pass.

He was never seen again. Hitler offered to cede Salonika and part of Macedonia to Yugoslavia in return for allowing German troops to transit into Greece. Meanwhile, British General Wilson arrived in Athens, Greece to take command of all Allied ground forces; he discovered the Greek troops were still manning the Metaxas Line on the Bulgarian-Greek border rather than the agreed upon Aliakmon Line. From the sea, Italian warships bombarded Greek coastal positions in Albania. Operation Claymore, the first large scale commando raid of the war, saw the destruction of fish oil factories along with 3, tons of fish oil, used for high explosives and nine merchant ships.

An unexpected bonus was the discovery of coding rotors for the Enigma cryptographic sysyem found aboard German trawler Krebs. The raiders withdrew without a single casualty along with German captives. On the same day, the British government broke off diplomatic relations with Bulgaria in response to their alliance with Germany. The entire crew of 31 was killed. The trawler had already picked up 39 survivors from the Dutch merchant steamer Simaloer, which has been bombed and sunk by German aircraft on 2 Mar At hours, an empty convoy returning from Greece to Egypt was attacked by Italian submarine Anfitrite east of Crete; Anfitrite was counterattacked and forced to the surface and was scuttled by her own crew.

British whaling factory ship Terje Viken largest in the world and British tanker Athelbeach were sunk, while two others were damaged. U was lost with all 48 on board to unknown causes on the same day. The damage of near misses floundered the vessel; the crew all survived. They searched for the escorting battleship HMS Malaya in failure; instead, U sank British ship Harmodius at hours and U sank four ships between and hours.

U received damage from depth charges as she was counterattacked. A total of 62 British sailors were killed; survivors were picked up. A total of 34 were killed at the club, while a further 80 were injured. The club had been thought to be relatively safe as it was located underground. HMS Utmost made an unsuccessful attack on the armed merchant cruiser Deffenu but was able to sink the freighter Capo Vita.

Ten crew lost their lives. Of the 3 survivors, 1 of them would die before being rescued by British corvette HMS Pimpernel four days later. Frodi would be able to escape to Vestmannaeyjar Island on the next day. Of the 69 survivors, 4 were captured by German battlecruiser Gneisenau, 22 made land in Senegal on 21 Mar, and 43 made land in Sierra Leone on 24 Mar. A parade was staged with the newly arrived tanks, with some of the tanks going around the town multiple times to make their numbers seem greater. The tanks headed east toward Sirte after the parade.

It was the operational debut of the four-engine heavy bomber. It was marred by the accidental shoot-down of one of them by an RAF nightfighter. All 10 crew members were reported to have taken to lifeboats, but they would never been seen again. To the south, German bombers attacked Liverpool for the second night in a row, pushing total casualty to about Both whalers were scuttled by their German crews to prevent capture.

She sank in the Irish Sea west of Skomer Island with the loss of six crewmen. Gudde was attacked by German aircraft and was sunk with an air torpedo, 12 miles north west of Bardsey Island at the tip of the Lynn Pennisula, Wales, United Kingdom. The requisitioned Perseus was on her way from Avonmouth, Bristol to Manchester. All crew were saved the next day by a British ship. Sixteen men, including the Captain, William Thwaites, were lost; 22 survived. The whole crew, 15 people in total, were lost. He made a successful crash landing, but sustained fatal injuries.

Taylor in command. All six aboard were killed. Overnight, U set British tanker Erodona on fire with a torpedo, killing 36, but she would be towed to Iceland for repairs. This was fighting talk but specious fighting talk, for that he was making public promises that he was powerless to keep. In British Somaliland, 2 Indian battalions conducted an amphibious landing at Berbera; the port was defended by only 60 Italian troops, who surrendered without resisting.

It was sunk by HMS Vanoc with depth charges. Only 6 of the 44 crew survived; commanding officer Joachim Scepke went down with U In the same action, U was scuttled after being damaged by HMS Walker; most of the crew survived, including the captain Otto Kretschmer. The entire crew of 66 survived the attack and took to 2 lifeboats, and all would survive.

Danish ship Chilean Reefer sent distress signals and returned fire with her deck gun, and was sunk by Gneisenau's inch shells, killing 9. British battleship HMS Rodney received the distress signals, but arrived only after the German ships had already departed the area. U transferred quartz aboard Admiral Scheer for her radar; although planned, the transfer of torpedoes from Kormoran to U was canceled due to rough seas.

At horus, HMS Walker dropped 6 depth charges on U, killing 3 and forcing her to surface from heavy damage. U was scuttled by her crew.


Scornet was one of 16 young Army Cadets who had fled France in a small boat with the intention of joining the Free French forces in England, United Kingdom. Lost in rough weather, they sailed into Guernsey, Channel Islands believing it to be the Isle of Wight and were captured. As an example to other escapees, Scornet was picked out as the ringleader and shot. After the war his remains were reinterred in his home village in Brittany, France.

Rommel was told to expect no reinforcements in Libya until May, when the German 15th Panzer Division would be assigned to him. Several freighters and auxiliary anti-aircraft ship Helvellyn were sunk or damaged in London docks. Battleship HMS Renown would advance in an attempt to recapture. The German prize crews scuttled both tankers before surrendering themselves along with the 46 prisoners of war aboard the two ships. The local people took the Royal visit as a "gala day" with bands and dancing on the Hoe, but no sooner had the Royal party departed German bombers appeared overhead causing great damage to the docks sinking British tug HMS Sir Bevois 9 killed , tug HMS Elan, and transport Mari II and city centre.

Less than thirty minutes into the mission one aircraft developed an engine fire which forced its captain to order the crew to abandon the stricken aircraft. Four crewmen jumped but only two survived and two others were killed. The pilot with one other crewman still aboard then attempted to bring the aircraft home but in attempting to land struck a tree and crashed, killing both airmen.

Aircraftsman Charles Leonard Wheatley, seeing that the fire threatened to explode the high-explosive bombs still aboard, bravely fought the fire, from only two yards away, and successfully prevented any further damage to the base. Five crewmen were lost, and four were rescued. All aboard made to lifeboats and survived. The lifeboats were machine gunned briefly by one of the Dornier aircraft, but some of the survivors believed that the German pilots were shooting to scare rather than to kill.

The nearby lifeboat house on land was also strafed as the aircraft departed. Many ministers resigned in protest. They were met by friendly aircraft at hours, escorting them as they headed for Brest, France. At hours, U attacked the same convoy again, sinking British ship Jhelum 8 killed, 49 survivors. Italian defenses held off the attacks for hours before falling back after sundown.

After capturing the crew, the Germans sank Agnita with demolition charges, nine mm shells, and one torpedo. They docked shortly after hours, ending Operation Berlin. Elsewhere, in Abyssinia, Italian troops declared Harar an open city. The commander of the Italian garrison, Lieutenant Colonel Castagna, was captured and would spent the rest of the war as a prisoner of war in India. One torpedo hit but failed to explode, while the other two missed.

U next attempted to attack with her deck gun, but a crewman had forgotten to remove the water plug from the gun, causing it to explode, wounding three men and causing some damage. The transport Carnia was damaged; she would be towed to Brindisi where she intended to receive repairs, but she would ultimately be lost. Australian troops on the front line destroyed a leading German armored car, but they were soon overwhelmed by German tanks.

Axis forces would capture El Agheila, Libya, the furthest point of the British advance against the Italians. British 2nd Armoured Division fell back 30 miles to Marsa Brega. British Royal Navy aircraft detected Italian freighter India; to prevent capture by British warships that were sure to come, the crew entered the port of Assab nearby. Thor began to rescue the survivors, but after taking on only one man, Thor detected British radio transmissions and fled the area before British warship arrived which never came.

Later on the same day, Thor sank Swedish merchant ship Trolleholm, capturing the entire crew of At hours, the destroyers released the motor boats 10 miles off Suda Bay, Crete, Greece to attack British warships. Upon hearing of the signing of this document, anti-Axis demonstrations escalated in Belgrade. It is their habit to push on wherever they are not resisted.

I presume you are only waiting for the tortoise to stick his head out far enough before chopping it off. He was not met by Joachim von Ribbentrop immediately as his German counterpart was busy with the recent political developments in Yugoslavia. Two men were killed. All six Italian boat drivers survived the attack, but all were captured. The torpedo struck the starboard, causing oil to gush out of the damaged tanks and the pump room was partly flooded.

She listed about 40 degrees to starboard, but effective damage control prevented capsizing.