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Sensory and Motor Systems. Nursing Studies Obstetrics and Gynaecology Gynaecology. Chemical Pathology. Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics. Medical Microbiology and Virology. Caring for Others. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Molecular Biology and Genetics. Reproduction, Growth and Development. Addiction Medicine. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Forensic Psychiatry. Learning Disabilities. Old Age Psychiatry. Public Health. Clinical Oncology.

Clinical Radiology. Interventional Radiology. Nuclear Medicine. Cardiothoracic Surgery. Critical Care Surgery. General Surgery. Breast Surgery. Hepatobiliary Surgery. Gastro-intestinal and Colorectal Surgery. Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery. Bariatric Surgery. Colorectal Surgery. Paediatric Surgery.

Peri-Operative Care. Plastic Surgery. Surgical Oncology. Transplant Surgery. Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery. Vascular Surgery. Dentist Undergraduate Dentist. Qualified Dentist. Qualified Nurse. Undergraduate Doctor. Qualified, early specialism training. Qualified, late specialism training. Qualified, specialist. Midwife Trainee Midwife. Qualified Midwife. Oxford Cardiology Library.

Oxford Diabetes Library. Oxford Endocrinology Library. Oxford General Practice Library. Oxford Infectious Diseases Library. Oxford Neurology Library. Oxford Oncology Library. Oxford Pain Management Library. Oxford Psychiatry Library. Oxford Respiratory Medicine Library. Oxford Rheumatology Library. Oxford Urology Library. Oxford Higher Specialty Training. One of the most important things you'll learn about is the cell , which is the basic building block of all living things.

Energy is big in the biochemistry world, and this is an area where the discipline overlaps with information you'll find in a physics textbook. The normal activities of living organisms, like growing, moving, and reproducing, demand a constant input of energy. The study of how energy behaves and the way different forms of it relate to each other falls under a branch of physics known as thermodynamics.

Life obeys the laws of thermodynamics, so a firm grounding in them will help you understand how biochemical reactions occur. Thanks to small mutations in genetic material that occur at random due to chemical damage or an issue with DNA, an individual can develop a beneficial or detrimental new feature. If the addition helps that individual survive, it will be more likely to breed and pass the mutation on. This process of natural selection allows for variation among populations and can help different species adapt to unexpected changes and difficult environments. Knowing the ins and outs of this procedure helps biochemists make discoveries that influence everything from conservation to medicine.

If everything you've read so far seems intimidating, don't worry. Taking on biochemistry is no small feat, but there are ways you can approach how you study to maximize your understanding. Try not to overanalyze little factoids. You're about to have a huge amount of information thrown at you, and the sheer volume of it will make it almost impossible to recall every little thing you've learned.

Instead of putting your efforts into rote memorization, focus on understanding the concepts to which you're being exposed. You'll still have to memorize some things, obviously, but when you have the fundamentals down, it's much easier to translate what you've learned across different systems and processes. Because biochemistry pulls heavily from chemistry and biology, you'll have to have plenty of prior knowledge to keep up with the subject.

One of the best ways to stay on top of things is to spend a short amount of time every day reviewing the ideas you already know. This will put you in a better position to learn brand new concepts and will keep you from becoming confused when you touch on a topic you haven't revisited in a while. You might be tempted to cram for hours on end, but that's not a good idea — cramming is one of the least effective ways of retaining information. Instead, break study sessions down into manageable chunks , and quiz yourself often to see how you're getting along.

Pay special attention to graphs, illustrations, and charts, and take notes and recreate structures by hand. This will help you reinforce what you've come across, and give you material to review later. It also helps to study in a group. Oftentimes, when you encounter a topic that you can't wrap your mind around, another student will have a firmer grasp on it and can explain it to you. This goes both ways. You'll notice that teaching an idea that has clicked with you to someone else will help you understand it better, too.

Born in Arizona, Gia is a writer and autodidact who fled the heat of the desert for California, where she enjoys drinking beer, overanalyzing the minutiae of life, and channeling Rick Steves. After arriving in Los Angeles a decade ago, she quickly nabbed a copywriting job at a major clothing company and derived years of editing and proofreading experience from her tenure there, all while sharpening her skills further with myriad freelance projects. In her spare time, she teaches herself French and Italian, has earned an ESL teaching certificate, traveled extensively throughout Europe and the United States, and unashamedly devours television shows and books.

The result of these pursuits is expertise in fashion, travel, beauty, literature, textbooks, and pop culture, in addition to whatever obsession consumes her next.

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Ezvid Wiki Reviews Books: Textbooks. The 10 Best Biochemistry Textbooks. Lehninger Principles. Pearson's Biochemistry. The Manga Guide. Students will explore the conceptual underpinnings of action research in science education as they relate specifically to curriculum, teaching and learning of science.

Students will gain experience in data collection and analysis, and will prepare an action research proposal based on their individual teaching situation. This course will focus on developing an understanding of forensic science discipline that teachers can apply to the classroom. Topics covered will include blood, DNA analysis, fingerprinting, forgery, computer forensics, physical and trace evidence, ballistics and the autopsy process. Using critical thinking, science and engineering practices, science disciplinary content, case studies, forensics labs and more, teachers will plan and perform forensic investigations in their classrooms.

Join the class for an exciting learning experience to solve the crime! This course is designed to provide graduate students in science education with a background in basic descriptive and inferential statistics. By the end of the course, students will be able to choose the most appropriate method to both describe their data and display that data in a clear and concise manner.

Students will be able to perform hypothesis tests using a variety of parametric and non-parametric methods with an understanding of the assumptions and limitations of each method as applied to the analysis of capstone data. Students will be able to perform one-way analysis of variance tests in addition to chi-square tests for categorical data. Through the examination of the appropriate use of each of these statistical tools, students will be able to better design their capstone projects so as to maximize the likelihood of addressing their research topics.

A course in the implementation of action research for practicing teachers. Students will learn how to effectively conduct action research based on their individual teaching situation and its implications for their professional development. The inquiry science notebooks are working amazingly in my classroom.

My students are writing and exploring more than I ever would have asked them to. The students having ownership over the labs is really awesome. Becoming a master teacher is a process. Once a teacher is comfortable with the content being taught and the overall curriculum, the focus can shift to instructional strategies. This course will engage students in discussions and practice regarding the construction, use and reporting of numerous master instructional techniques.

The emphasis of the course is on classroom instruction with the intent of informing and improving the effectiveness of one's instruction. A classroom or teaching setting such as museum, planetarium, zoo, outdoor school in which to complete the required instructional "assignments" is absolutely necessary. So, you've been asked to participate on the science textbook selection committee. Perhaps you've been appointed to chair the committee to write your school's science curriculum or develop instructional materials for an informal science education setting such as a museum or zoo..

If asked by an administrator or a parent, could you describe the curriculum you are currently teaching? All teachers talk ABOUT curriculum, but have you ever considered the factors that drive the construction of curriculum? This course examines the philosophical, historical, and social influences that drive the construction of curriculum. Emphasis is placed on science curriculum past, present, and future.

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Where did it start? How has it evolved? What is around the bend in the future? Current trends such as standards, inquiry, and high-stakes testing that influence curriculum will be considered in relationship to your own teaching experiences. After completing this course, science teachers will be equipped with a greater understanding of the workings of science curriculum development. Each dimension will be examined with emphasis on the interconnectness of the dimensions.

The course will help teachers of science, regardless of level or content, teaching in formal or informal settings to better understand the underpinnings of NGSS and to develop strategies to implement NGSS dimensions in their teaching. Weekly assignments include online readings, discussion among colleagues and reflection and application of the content. Each Master of Science in Science Education MSSE student, with the cooperation of her or his graduate committee, identifies and completes a science education capstone project. Each project is designed to provide experience and information that aids our understanding of science teaching-learning or science curriculum.

The capstone project topic is identified during the student's graduate program and relates to science education in the student's educational setting; it links multiple courses in the student's program of study in both the core and science content areas. This course is a practical introduction to data 'wrangling' for students in the MSSE program. Our goal is to give you a basic foundation in dealing with the sorts of data that arise from MSSE projects, point you in the right direction on how to talk about your data, ideas for data display and some suggestions for analysis.

No background in statistics is expected or required, although we do expect basic math skills! This brief introduction will not relying on any programming skills. Specifically, we will:. To be considered for funding support, the MSSE graduate student must meet at least one of the following criteria:. Solar Cell Basics is a course for science educators, to train them to teach principles of solar cells. The course is designed to help science teachers, grades 6 to 12, understand the operating principles and the fabrication processes of modern solar cells that convert light energy to electrical energy.

The course has a laboratory component in which solar cells will be fabricated in the Montana Microfabrication Facility MMF. Each student will process 4 inch silicon wafers using the various steps necessary to make solar cells. The course prerequisites are a minimum of 2 years successful science teaching experience, enrolled in MSSE degree, or by instructor approval.

Participants must hold a bachelors degree in science, science education or a related area. Participants should have an understanding of basic chemistry and physics principles. This course introduces the concepts of classical digital logic design including number systems, interfacing, Boolean algebra, combinational logic design, and finite state machines. This course also covers Hardware Description Languages for the design and simulation of digital systems.

Modern digital design of combinational logic and state machines is covered using VHDL and a logic synthesizer. This course contains a laboratory experience where students design and implement logic circuits using discrete parts and programmable logic devices.

This course begins with establishing the necessary background for understanding snow and avalanches. The course then progresses into methods for solving problems related to snow and avalanche mitigation including topics from route selection to explosives placement. This course is designed to educate the teachers in the basics of snow and avalanche physics such that they may apply what they learn in their own classrooms to excite their students about science and physics.

The course requires comfort with simple mathematical calculations, independent research, and communication with your peers and instructor via the on-line interface. This course is designed to introduce the concepts of engineering technology design to equip teachers of science to meet and exceed emerging standards of teaching engineering process K A balanced approach of engineering processes and educational pedagogy will be the cornerstones of the course.

Exploring nutrition for physical fitness and athletic performance has never been more interesting or exciting! Food provides fluids, energy, nutrients, fiber, and phytochemicals. But what nutritional strategies are optimal? Do dietary supplements work?

1. You Don’t Have to Be a Lab Rat.

Using nutrition to meet the demands of physical activity is a dynamic process that combines scientific research, nutrition guidelines, and the practical aspects of fueling active people in specific situations. This course examines the latest developments that link nutrition with physical fitness, sport performance, and health promotion. Resources include a text, course supplement, nutrition analysis software, peer-reviewed scientific literature, current news, and Internet resources.

Participants contribute to asynchronous online discussions throughout each week. Expect to relate each week's topic to your areas of interest and expertise. A diverse group of participants practicing teachers in various specialties, coaches, trainers, registered dietitians, nutrition educators, exercise consultants, fitness leaders, and other health professionals ensures that discussions will be interesting, lively, and challenging.


Topics include energy, fluid, and nutrient needs for physical activity; nutrition around exercise before, during, recovery ; free radicals and antioxidants; dietary supplements; body composition; weight management; disordered eating; and the female athlete triad. Sport-specific nutrition strategies for endurance, team sports, and strength training are addressed. Controversial issues such as high protein-low carbohydrate diets and creatine supplementation are discussed. Internet resources are used extensively. Assignments challenge participants to apply science-based nutrition strategies in practical situations such as case studies, classroom activities, athletic training, and client consultations.

Participants demonstrate competency in the following areas: locating credible nutrition resources on the internet; accessing, analyzing, and evaluating nutrition information; and using nutrition analysis software to develop meals, snacks, and a personalized fitness menu. The course project entails selecting a dietary supplement to evaluate and investigating a claim for consuming that supplement. Published, peer-reviewed scientific literature retrieved from the National Library of Medicine databases provides the evidence needed to evaluate the claim. Participants demonstrate competency in developing a written evaluation of the safety, legality, effectiveness, quality control, and potential benefits versus risks of consuming the dietary supplement.

You will learn how microorganisms influence hot springs, contribute to the cycling of nutrients, and how these unique organisms are used in a variety of biotechnology applications. You will also visit Yellowstone geothermal systems on a two day field trip, and through sample collection, you will create an instructional model based on your data collection or other material and will give a draft presentation on your model to the class.

Finally, during laboratory sessions, you will be introduced to several thermal-biology related labs you may wish to modify and incorporate in your classroom. Physical Fitness Requirement: Field trips will require walking distances of up to 5 miles with moderate slopes and will involve being in the field for the majority of the day.

Weather may vary! This five day course includes 3 days in the field making measurements on exotic invasive plants at a range of sites from the Gallatin Valley to the Gallatin National Forest and 2 days analyzing the data and using simulation models to explore plant invasiveness.

The focus of this course is to directly involve students with testing methodology for monitoring the invasive potential of several exotic species in otherwise pristine mountain environments. Can we detect change in non-indigenous plant populations that will allow us to judge them as invasive? What should be the criteria for determining if a non-indigenous plant species can have a significant impact on the ecosystem?

Students will read the most current theories on what makes species invasive and what conditions invite or detour non-indigenous plant species. Data analysis will place each student with a computer and include the use of Excel software. Small groups will be created and each group will analyze a different portion of the field data. Integration of field ecology into K classes will be discussed throughout the course. The primary goal of this course is to increase the water resource knowledge of students through hands-on, field-based curriculum.

To accomplish this, students will be asked to adopt a local stream and perform lab assignments "in the field" to better understand hands-on water quality monitoring techniques. The course will improve the teaching skills of secondary science teachers utilizing distant delivery technologies. By completing this course, secondary science teachers will have a better understanding and hands-on working knowledge of the characterization and quantification of water quality as it relates to secondary school science curriculum and environmental issues on a global scale.

Curriculum standards will be linked to each lesson plan so that teachers can easily incorporate the content into their core curriculum. Playing with DIRT! At your age? Believe it or not, soil to some known as "dirt" is part of all of our lives on a daily basis. And, as environmental issues such as water quality, waste management, ecological biodiversity, land resource carrying capacity, and alternative land uses continue to gain more attention from the public, increasing demands will be placed on earth science, physical science, geology, geography, and general science teachers for curriculum to support our understanding of these issues.

Soil science is not a new science, but one that has gained much attention and interest in the past decade. And, the study of soil science has taken on new, "real-life" meaning and significance in the last decade. The goal of this course is to introduce teachers to the basic principles of soil science as an integral part of the curriculum for environmental sciences, ecology, earth science, geology, water quality, and geography.

The course is structured around twelve basic soil concepts, beginning with the significance of soil in our everyday lives and progressing through soil formation, the physical and chemical properties of soils, and the role soil and the earth play in environmental management today and in the future. This course is filled with "how to" classroom teaching opportunities and resources.

A good share of the course addresses contemporary issues and readings. We'll integrate teaching DIRT with math, language arts, geography, social studies, artistic expression, chemistry, physics, and biology. You'll learn about the soil in your own school yard or back yard, who to contact to get local "experts" and how to get your students more interested in environmental studies. This course is "hands on", participation oriented. Today's science teacher faces challenges and issues, which were just beginning to gain attention 10, 15, or 20 years ago.

And, teaching today's science requires both an integrated background and approach in the classroom. Water Quality: Teaching the Science of Water Quality in the classroom - is a 'must' course for teachers involved in any aspect of biological sciences. Water quality can be called an "integrating" science, in that it serves as a platform for expanded applications of chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics, geology, earth science, political and social sciences, and creative arts. The Water Quality course has three central foci: 1 to increase student knowledge and assessment skills about the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of water quality investigations, 2 to develop and implement new pedagogies for teaching water quality concepts in the secondary school science classroom, and 3 increase student awareness and understanding of some of the more significant global water quality issues that will face science teachers and their students in the 21st century.

This course teaches water quality concepts and how to demonstrate, explain, and teach them in the science classroom. Course format includes weekly "kitchen counter" experimentation, library and independent research, written homework, discussion. Join us to learn more about the physical, chemical, and biological processes that regulate lake systems. Focus will be on secondary production, the small eukaryotes that are at the base of the food chain, and how it influences food web interactions at other trophic levels within and beyond the shores of the lake.

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By the end of the course, expected learner outcomes are that students will 1 have a deep understanding of relationships among physical, chemical, and biological processes that influence lake dynamics, 2 understand and perform field sampling techniques to collect and qualitatively assess aquatic invertebrate life within a lake with their students, 3 perform taxonomic identification of aquatic invertebrates using scientific taxonomic keys and dissecting microscopes with their students, 4 understand the role of genetic identification of organisms in ecology and how to incorporate this technology into their classroom, 5 effectively navigate genetic database repositories and incorporate this into their classroom, 6 create and understand how to incorporate the use of ecological conceptual models in their classroom, and 7 design an instructional unit appropriate for their students in their teaching setting.

The course will be held in the field and on the MSU campus. Teachers will conduct field research collecting eukaryotic organisms and will perform genetic analysis on specimens in a laboratory on the MSU campus. How to apply newly learned skills in your classroom will be an emphasis throughout the course. MSU educators, National Park Service resource managers, and other agency professionals will be joining the class to provide a multi-disciplinary perspective. Students will be responsible for reading materials contained in a course packet and additional materials handed out throughout the course.

Participants should anticipate some short treks and be prepared for any type of weather while in the field.

This course will provide an inquiry based examination of current microbiology related topics. Emphasis will be placed on the ramifications of issues with respect to industry, medicine, and personal health.

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  • A review of literature will provide background information for the topics in order to provide teachers sufficient and correct information to hold discussions regarding these topics in their classrooms. The goals of the course are to provide science educators with fundamental knowledge of microbiology that will allow them to expand and enhance their teaching activities in this subject.

    Teachers will gain an appreciation of the biology of microorganisms through reading, web searches, assignments and discussions on the life and death of microorganisms, the microbial world and microorganisms in their environments. They will also learn how a fundamental knowledge and understanding of microbiology can be applied in daily life as well as in biotechnology and in studying complex issues such as the origins of life.

    The course will provide a sound grounding in microbiology for students who intend to take courses on infectious diseases and environmental microbiology. An inquiry-based laboratory in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell and molecular biology, this course provides training in microbiological techniques such as:. Current literature and laboratory discussions cover molecular approaches for investigating complex cellular mechanisms.

    (PDF) Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students, 7th Edition | Shafinewaz RPh -

    The fields of infectious disease and immunology have developed side-by-side, are closely intertwined, and are very active fields of research and practical medical application. Remarkable achievements in these fields have changed our lives. Some examples are the eradication of naturally acquired smallpox, the discovery and development of antimicrobial agents, and the development of vaccines that dramatically decrease the incidence of specific infectious diseases.

    But new challenges appear each year. We again worry about smallpox - now about the intentional release of this and other potential agents of bioterrorism. The emergence of drug-resistant microbes is an increasing problem. Previously undiscovered infectious agents are being described and associated with disease. The population of immune deficient humans is getting larger and the associated opportunistic infections are an increasingly important and difficult problem.

    In this course, we will first address some basic aspects of microbiology as they relate to infectious disease. How are microbes different from each other and from humans, and why do these differences matter? How do antimicrobial agents kill or inhibit microbes without seriously harming humans? How do microbes acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents? Attention will then turn to the immune system, with emphasis on the roles of the immune system in infectious disease. Finally, and for about two-thirds of the course, we will examine important infectious diseases of humans: their causes, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

    In addition to assigned textbook and syllabus readings and online discussion, participants in the course will analyze scientific journal articles and solve case histories involving infectious disease and immunology. The course will provide students with fundamental knowledge of environmental microbiology. Through reading assignments and discussions on freshwater, marine, food and soil microbiology, students will gain an appreciation of how microorganisms maintain the biosphere in a balanced state. Students will also learn how this fundamental knowledge of microbial ecology has been exploited by man to remediate soils contaminated with toxic wastes and waters polluted with residential, industrial and agricultural waste.

    This course is designed to provide an understanding of the fundamentals of genetic processes in bacteria prokaryotes. Why bacteria instead of higher organisms or eukaryotes? However, the basic concepts such as transcription, translation, mutation, and recombination are similar if not identical in all organisms. Bacterial genetics labs are becoming easier to use, are relatively inexpensive and provide an ideal platform for genetic studies in the secondary school setting. It is critical that science teacher, then understand the fundamental processes of genetics particularly as they apply to microorganisms.

    This course will provide students with fundamental knowledge of microbial ecology and its methods. The ecology of microorganisms in relation to nutrition, growth, control, metabolism, biogeochemical cycling, natural environments and microbial interactions will be covered. Readings from the text and other sources, discussions, and assignments will be included to facilitate learning and for evaluation.

    This course is intended for middle, high school, and lower level college teachers, as well as others in education roles e. Physics is entirely laboratory based. Instead of absorbing facts from a lecture, the students make observations and build scientific models to account for their observations. The course emphasizes the development of basic concepts and reasoning skills, and efforts are made to actively engage students in the learning process.

    Staff-to-student ratio is of necessity high two instructors for approximately 14 students , and interactions with staff are through Socratic dialog: the instructors do not give answers, but help the students to find their own. Available computer technology is utilized as appropriate. The students will be able to solve both qualitative and quantitative problems involving very complicated circuits containing batteries and bulbs. For example, they will be able to rank the brightness of the identical bulbs without relying on the rote use of equations. The in-service teachers will also make careful observations of the moon, and from their observations piece together a model to explain the phases of the moon.

    This curriculum is based on two decades of research on student misconceptions. Each activity is designed to elicit those misconceptions known to block learning, and to allow the student to confront and resolve the difficulties. Students are often presented with several opportunities to confront the same misconception in increasingly rich contexts to insure that they are completely free of the misconception.

    This teaching approach has a three-fold advantage when used with future teachers: 1 They come away from the class with a clear understanding of the physics based on their own experience; 2 They acquire an awareness of those difficulties with which their future students are likely to be struggling; 3 Most importantly, they acquire a self-confidence in their ability to do science, to face unknown situations and find their own answers.

    Their teaching will be free of references to higher authority. They will be able to predict the time of the high tide a skill more useful in other states by looking at the phase of the moon and using their model. And it will be their model because they will build it for themselves, from the ground up. The course will explore the differences between the concepts of heat and temperature.

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    This will include a study of heat capacity, specific heat, phase change, and heat transfer. The in-service teachers will also conduct a careful investigation of light, color, and geometrical optics. The course will begin with a careful investigation of geometrical optics, leading to an understanding of pinhole cameras, lenses, and prisms. This will be followed by an exploration of magnetic interactions and magnetic materials.

    This course seeks answers to the questions: In what ways does Nature behave differently at high relative speeds than at low speeds? Do moving clocks really "run slow"? Do fast-moving objects really shrink and get heavier? Why can't we move faster than light? Why can't we travel backward in time? Can mass really be converted into energy and energy into mass? What does it mean to say that space and time are part of a larger unity called spacetime? And what predictions do all these statements make for actual experiments? Developing skills in answering these questions will help you to pose and answer your own questions, assisted by interactive visual computer software.

    This course describes the workings of the world around us.