Currently, they are assigned to the 6th and 7th fleets as flagships. The ships are generally designed to transport troops into a war zone by sea, primarily using landing craft, although invariably they also have the capability to operate transport helicopters. Dock landing ships are similar to amphibious transport dock ships, but lack hangar facilities to store and service embarked aircraft. There are two major types of submarines, attack and ballistic.
Attack submarines SSN have tactical missions, including controlling naval and shipping activity, serving as cruise missile-launching platforms, and intelligence-gathering. However, some of these boats have been converted to SSGN and launch standard cruise missiles. The destroyer evolved from the need of navies to counter a new ship which made a devastating debut in the Chilean Civil War and in the First Sino-Japanese War of This was the swift, small torpedo boat that could dash in close to the larger ships, loose their torpedoes and dash away.
The world's navies recognized the need for a counter weapon, and so the torpedo boat destroyer—later just "destroyer"—was born. Modern destroyers have evolved greatly from this initial role; some are arguably the primary surface combatants of their fleets. Frigates according to the modern classification of U. They are designed primarily to protect other ships such as merchant convoys , and perform some Anti-Submarine Warfare duties. They are of more limited scope than destroyers, but are also more cost-efficient. The last Oliver Hazard Perry -class was decommissioned in September , leaving the navy no active frigates.
On January 15, U. This would apply only to the future variations of these ships. Current ships will retain the LCS classification unless and until they are upgraded to the standards of the newer ships. A littoral combat ship LCS is a type of relatively small surface vessel intended for operations in the littoral zone close to shore. It is "envisioned to be a networked, agile, stealthy surface combatant capable of defeating anti-access and asymmetric threats in the littorals.
It was announced in January that future and retrofitted versions of these two classes will be re-classified as frigates. In a study called the "Force Structure Assessment", the Navy determined a post battle-force requirement of ships. The U. Navy has operated a number of vessels important to both United States and world naval history:.
From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigation , search. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. May Main article: Littoral combat ship.
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Retrieved 15 January April 3, Turret guns aboard the Pennsylvania BB , 19 October The Pennsylvania , flagship of the Navy, in recent fleet maneuvers off California. Drawing courtesy of artbywayne. Admiral James O. Fleet, in ceremonies on board Pennsylvania BB , 24 June Captain Roland M. Lovette via Tommy Trampp. With him are center Admiral Charles P. Snyder, Commander, Battle Force, U. Fleet, and right Vice Admiral William S. Pye, Commander Battleships, Battle Force. Note pipe radiator on the bulkhead, to the right, open porthole covers and leather-covered furniture.
Fleet, seated, center with members of his staff on board the Fleet flagship, Pennsylvania BB , January Photo of part of the Pacific Fleet in at Lahaina, Maui. It is possible that the battleship on the left is the California BB If you look at the top of the armored conning tower there is a thin vertical structure at the rear on top of the conning tower, just in front of the superstructure. The center battleship is definitely Oklahoma because of the higher platform. I also believe that this can be narrowed down to be Pennsylvania rather than Arizona BB because of the height of the armored conning tower in front of the superstructure and behind turret 2.
As can be seen in this picture of the Pennsylvania , which was taken at nearly the same angle, the conning tower is one deck higher than on the Arizona , shown here. Partial text i. Photo courtesy of Floyd Proffitt via Brad Proffitt. Probable front and rear photos here and below showing formations of aircraft flying over U. The Yorktown and Enterprise were the only two carriers whose bombing squadrons were equipped with the Northrop BT The text for the photo reads: "The Navy uses enormous amounts of rubber.
At least seventy-five tons of rubber, enough to makes 17, tires, are used in the construction of each of these battleships. Tons more are needed for the naval planes that are making history over the world. Medical and communication requirements--and countless other needs of the Navy--are met. Fourth is the Oklahoma BB no birdbath.
Aside from the DD now in the lead, I see nothing in the head-on shot aerial that positively differs from the ID's of the first 4 BB's in the first photo. Everything I see supports these three photos all being part of the same operation with at least the first 5 BB's remaining in the same order. Battleship i. Probable front and rear photos here and above showing formations of aircraft flying over U. New Mexico BB is leading the BB column while the remaining battleships have dual masthead fire control structures. The air group formation in the two photos appears to be similar.
The perspective makes it difficult to sort the monoplanes and biplanes into their respective types. I suppose it's possible that the photographer was in that Helldiver's rear seat. What stands out for me is the presence of nine extra fighters beyond the normal squadron composition of 18, as seen in the other three squadrons in this formation. She is pictured here in company with other ships of the Pacific Fleet taken during Fleet Ops.
Attack on Pearl Harbor. Captain Charles M. Cooke, Jr. Portrait photograph, taken circa Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carriers in dawn fly-off for Pearl Harbor. Artwork by John Hamilton from his publication, "War at Sea," pg. USN photo H, courtesy of the U. USN photo I, courtesy of the U. Photo courtesy of Arnold Putnam.
Alongside Pier , in the center middle distance, are the light cruiser Helena CL , listing slightly from a torpedo hit, and the capsized minelayer Oglala CM Taken on 7 December Submitted by Scott Dyben. Cassin has capsized against Downes. Pennsylvania BB is astern, occupying the rest of the drydock. The torpedo-damaged cruiser Helena CL is in the right distance, beyond the crane. Smoke is from the sunken and burning Arizona BB , out of view behind Pennsylvania. California BB is partially visible at the extreme left.
Note Jack flying at the battleship's bow. Damage to the superstructure deck, broken near the splinter shield to the left and folded back to the right. The crane is being used to clear away damage. View from the upper deck outboard of No. Note how the splinter shield of the gun above is lifted.
The galley bulkhead is in the center of the picture. Looking aft of the No. The galley door in the b. STS bulkhead to the right is hanging by one hinge. The bomb struck the base of the gun mount in the lower left corner of the picture, and rebounded to explode where the hole is in the deck. Looking inboard in the No. The fire main riser was broken. Crew space A on the main deck, looking aft.
Foundation of No. Note rupture of clipping room bulkhead in the rear center of the picture. View from within warrant Officers mess, looking to starboard into A, and showing distorted bulkhead and fragment penetrations. Plate I. Cut out of the Plan view of Dry Dock No. Plate III. Note the removal of her conning tower and long-base rangefinder was mounted in its place.
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A new deckhouse replaced her Mainmast, the after Main Battery Director cupola Spot 2 being relocated to its top. Provision for dual-purpose fire control was limited to replacement of the two MK.
The bridgework was simplified mainly by the elimination of the previous outside platforms and the turret-top catapult and boat cranes were removed. Ten quadruple Bofors and fifty-one Oerlikons were mounted. Photo taken on 26 February , one of the 1. View of splintershields, 5-Inch AA gun shields and 20mm guns and platforms. Mare Island, CA. View of splinter shields and 20mm guns and platforms amidships, looking Fwd. Note: There also seems to be some sort of exchange regarding what looks like gas balloons in the left corner of the photo. Broadside view of the Pennsylvania BB starboard side.
Bow to frame Mare Island, Ca. Broadside view, starboard side at Mare Island, Ca. View from Frame 33 to View from Frame 40 to The Pennsylvania BB survived Pearl Harbor virtually without damage and continued to operate in essentially her Pre-Pearl Harbor configuration, except that now all her 5-in. Some of the features installed on the Pacific Fleet battleships before their destruction were therefore preserved, as shown in this 2 March Mare Island view, including the installation of enclosed Mark 19 directors on the rangefinder level and extensive splinter protection.
Note the air defense position at the base of the foremast and radar, scheduled for installation aboard all battleships. Broadside view, starboard side. Plate 5a, Frame 96 - March, View of splinter shields, 5-Inch A. March Broadside view, Stb. View from Frame 71 to View from Frame 75 to View from Frame to stern.
Aleutian Island Campaign, June August This bombardment lasted nearly three hours. Pennsylvania BB , main batteries of the 14" guns. Looking Fwd. Note the long-base rangefinder and the addition of quad. San Francisco, CA. Pennsylvania BB Plan view, looking aft from Stb. Note the CXAM January A good view of her added 40mm quads and directors,the 20mm gallery and the long-base rangefinder already mentioned.
Atop her 2 Turret a triplet of 20mm's in their tubs. Plan view, looking Fwd. Director Platform. View aft. Note the type P catapult on her stern. Plan view, port side, looking Fwd. The two MK. A new deck house is base for 8 Twin 5-in. The mainmast is replaced by a stump tower carrying a Main Battery Director to open sky arcs. Drawing prepared by the Bureau of Ships for use in preparing camouflage designs, circa This plan shows the Pennsylvania's BB starboard side, superstructure ends and exposed decks. This plan shows the ship's starboard side and superstructure ends. Pennsylvania BB , taken in February , location unknown.
USN photo courtesy of David Buell. He was commissioned to paint a portrait of the battleship Pennsylvania here and a portrait of the Trident Submarine Pennsylvania. Photo courtesy of William Bill H. RaVell III. More of his work can be found ravellfineart. Note that the radiomast is folded down to avoid damage from striking cables.
Photo of Task Group 51, the Attu force, May Martins Press, An LST is in the left background. Aerial of Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii. Shown: Ship dispersal and docking areas. Photograph released 12 December Both of her sisters had their primary air search radar sets on the mainmast at the time. Naval Aircraft,". In the insert photo top left note the Lexington CV in for drydock repairs suffered when attacked during a raid Kwajalein 4 December; she was hit by a torpedo to starboard, knocking out her steering gear.
She was stateside on 26 December. The Pennsylvania has been modernized, with increased A. View from the ring as Pennsylvania's BB crew gathers aft to watch a boxing match while anchored at Eniwetok on 1 July Pennsylvania's BB anti-aircraft gunners at their battle stations during a lull between her three bombardments of the island of Peleliu the day before allied forces landed on 15 September Crew members passing 5" ammunition aft on her port side at some point around the time of the Peleliu bombardment.
Powder cans for Pennsylvania's BB main battery are loaded aboard her forward deck to replace those used in firing the nearly thousand rounds used in the bombardment of Peleliu a week earlier. As the ship is lifted out of the water, sailors work on the hull of the ship, scraping marine growth off before it dries and hardens.
View of Pennsylvania's BB stern with work stands around her propellers and shafts, probably on the 3rd of October She was in drydock to repair bearings on her 4 shaft as well as the 4 propeller. Note the extensive anti-torpedo "blister" built into her hull side and paravane streaming chains running from her forefoot to her foredeck.
Manley was delivering fifteen wounded sailors from Ross DD to Pennsylvania after the destroyer struck two Japanese mines in less than 30 minutes off Dinagat Island in the Admiralties. Note the empty stretcher being sent for patient. Photograph released 18 October Note the gun directors at the side of the bridge.
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Pennsylvania BB 14" gun, turret 2 salvo on Leyte. Photograph released 20 October Pennsylvania BB 5" starboard salvo on Leyte. Tracers from the battleship converge on Japanese plane during night air attack in Leyte Gulf. Body of sailor is transferred to a smaller craft from Pennsylvania BB for burial ashore on Leyte Islands. Photograph released 23 October A painting by the artist Wayne Scarpaci entitled "We have returned. In one of the most famous photographs of the war, Pennsylvania BB in the van at Lingayen Gulf during the recapture of the Philippines, October A wartime censor has censored the radar on Pennsylvania.
Partial text and drawing courtesy of naval-art. Shown: U. Ships firing on Japanese Task Force. Photograph by Pennsylvania BB , 25 October Pennsylvania BB , turning wake of the battleship while showing the torpedo wake of the torpedo which narrowly missioned the battleship in Leyte Gulf.
Photograph by Pennsylvania , 1 November Fahey, courtesy of Tommy Trampp. The light aircraft carrier Cabot CVL is visible in the drydock in the lower half of the picture. The battleship Pennsylvania BB is visible at the pier in the upper part of the picture. USN photo now in the U. The aircraft carrier in the background is most likely the Intrepid CV Note the two MK. Turret, the radar MK. A highly-directional, high-powered jammer with monitors incorporated in the antenna, used for very accurate radar direction finding after the rough fix, given by DBM.
The antenna was a radiating dipole backed by a screen of horizontal dipole reflectors, the opening angle of which could be varied. Conical scan introduced in , improved range performance by about 30 per cent with a range on a bomber at ft of 35nm and on a destroyer It had a resolution of yds and 1. Production began in the fall of and about were built, many installed aboard battleships. Here is a cropped view of the top of radar picket destroyer Frank Knox's DD Maintop showing her SP, the lightweight successor to SM, a fighter control radar with a 6ft antenna.
BB - 38 had the larger 8ft. The dome on the lower tripod platform is a DBM radar direction-finder required for effective jamming. Actual jamming was done by the TDY visible on the platform. The "Sword" acted to sample enemy reactions to jamming. TBS tactical radio: SK-2 had a new 17ft dish antenna intended to reduce the side lobes of the previous SK and it spread the main beam in azimuth to 23 degrees. Due to the low elevation of its beams it could not detect high-flying aircraft. SG, a 10cm surface search radar and the first to incorporate a PPI.
Gun Director MK. It used a stabilized, conical scanning-type, cm MK. Typical weight was 19,lb. There was a Ballistic Converter MK. As a result of excessive alteration during development of the all-electric computer Mk. Only 43 units were produced when production ended in Accuracy was 15yds plus 0.
Tracking data were projected into the field of vision of Gun Sight MK. To counter BAKA suicide weapons, its limits were raised to kts, 20 degrees lead angle and yards. Typical weights were lb above and lb below decks. Director MK. It had an 18ft rangefinder and was crowded after radar, trunnion tilt and director correction correctors were added later and drive was too rough. It was replaced post-war by MK. Weights: 41,lb topside and 10,lb below decks with a topside crew of 16 and below decks II with Gun Sight Mk.
Twelve inch guns in her turrets have been replaced. A line drawing by A. Photo and text courtesy of U. The ship was saved. Hoses from gun barrels lead from ship's flooded compartments. AP Wire photo courtesy of Tommy Trampp. Photographed by Lieutenant Junior Grade Melvin. Navy, via flickr. Pennsylvania BB on 12 August at Buckner Bay, Okinawa where she was assisted by two salvage tugs in pumping the water out and later towed her to Apra Harbor, Guam. On 6 September she was in ABSD 3 where repairs were made to cover the hole before steaming to Puget Sound Naval Yard under her own power for more extensive repairs.
Damage from a torpedo attack on the Pennsylvania BB , 12 August, Pennsylvania BB inboard profile, Note that her conning tower has been removed. And what did you do in the war Daddy? Pennsylvania's BB score card on Bridge. Note the white boxes on the barge, these are coffins that contain the remains of Pennsylvania crew members killed during the Kamikaze attack on her at Okinawa, 12 August ABSD-6 is to the left of the picture. The island was built for supplies and Enlisted and Officers Clubs, movie theater, etc. Front row, left to right: Albert J. Bulavich, mechinist's mate, second class, [ Hons, seaman, first class, [ Elridge, seaman, first class, [ Iannotti, seaman, first class, [ Krause, seaman, first class, [ McClenahan, fire controlman, third class, [ Dukate, storekeeper, third class, [ Winterbottom, seaman, first class, [ Lesniewski, seaman, second class, [ Joseph J.
Second row, left to right: Theodore H. Gemmill, machinist's mate, first class, [ Cipolloni, seaman, first class, [ Bioletti, seaman, first class, [ Holtz, signalman, third class, [ Cress, seaman, first class, [ Hamilton, seaman, first class, [ Ames, seaman, first class, [ Conatti, seaman, first class, [ Woods, Jr. Smith, coxswain, [ Ballnut, coxswain, [ Nicklaus, aviation metalsmith, second class, [ Ellis, radio technician, second class, [ Charles Hartley, [ Grzebiniowski, seaman, first class, [ Larkin, seaman, first class, [ James E.
Hill, [ Beast, coxswain, [ Shetler, seaman, second class, [ Clinton, seaman, first class, [ Allsop, seaman, first class, [ Hoffman, seaman, first class, [ Horner, seaman first class, [ Curto, seaman, [ Jenkins, seaman, first class, [ Bollinger, seaman, first class, [ Lloyd, fireman first class, [ Riggle, electrician's mate, second class, [ Guis, gunner's mate, third class, [ Barron, gunner's mate, second class, [ Noble, Jr. Fifth row: Nicholas Karlovich, chief signalman, [ Ashbough, fire controlman, second class, [ Gibson, boatswain's mate, second class, [ Kyler, [ Metz, seaman, first class, [ Walter A.
Troutman Jr. McAdams, fire controlman, third class, [ Hellein, Jr. Kowinski, seaman, first class, [ Isack, seaman, first class, [ Sixth row: William Beckert, seaman, first class, [ Beall, seaman, first class, [ Elmer, seaman, first class, [ Bromwell, seaman, first class, [ Causey, seaman, second class, [ Giordano, gunner's mate, third class, [ Fischer, seaman, first class, [ Lynn, seaman, first class, [ Boxen, seaman, first class, [ Farra, gunner's mate, second class, [ Noel, seaman, first class, [ Seventh row: Richard D.
Smith, machinist's mate, third class, [ Long, seaman, second class, [ Kephart, machinist's mate, second class, [ Kane, machinist's mate, first class, [ Bodnar, seaman, first class, [ Steck, seaman, second class, [ Buchholz, seaman, first class, [ Minsterman, fireman, second class, [ Moses at Puget Sound, 5 November ABSD-3 crew photo. In the background is the battleship Pennsylvania BB in the dock.
Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, 1 March Looking aft from centerline to starboard from foremast. Note the removed MK. Pennsylvania BB looking Fwd. Centerline to Stbd. Camera approximately 3' above MK. Note the missing 5in. Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, 1 March, Looking aft Centerline to port from foremast. Camera approximately 3' above Top of Main Battery Control. Note SP radar atop her Main Mast. She has been partially stripped for the test as evidenced by the missing portside 5" gun mounts.
She is still leaking from the 12 August Japanese torpedo hit, only repaired enough to make her seaworthy to sail. Other test ships can be seen in the background and of particular interest is the hull markings at the bow indicating how much water she is drawing. By the height of the markings, it is obvious that the Navy wasn't sure what would happen to the ship during the blast.
Bikini Bomb Test, The underwater test at Bikini shows its terrific power amid the anchored vessels, made bare seconds after its release. She survived both atomic tests at Crossroads, a fitting testament to a battleship that had been at Pearl Harbor on 7 December Although suffering only minor fire damage, she was heavily contaminated and was scuttled off Kwajalein in Arthur Beaumont 11 Watercolor, Gift of the artist.
She was towed to Kwajalein after the explosions and studied there. Too "hot" to handle, she was simply towed to sea and scuttled at the conclusion of the radiation studies. Final moments of the Pennsylvania BB as she is expended as a target and scuttled off Hawaii on 10 February A tough ship; she survived both Bikini nuclear tests.
A guest studies a painting depicting the history of battleships. Everett Hyland, one of the remaining Pearl Harbor survivors who served aboard the battleship Pennsylvania BB , reflects a moment aboard the Arizona Memorial just before a flag raising ceremony on 7 December Sailors from Naval Medical Clinic Pearl Harbor planned and participated in the ceremony, where a flag was flown over the Arizona Memorial and then sent to Somerset County, Pennsylvania, where it will be flown regularly above the future Flight 93 Memorial, commemorating those who perished in the United Airlines Flight 93 on 11 September A quote made by Fleet Adm.