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Even if it is true, as most crit- ics believe, that the process was begun in the First World War cf. The result was that, for most of the twentieth century heroes were viewed with a certain skepticism. Carpenter, A Biography , Rose A Zimbardo and Neil D. Isaacs Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , Bernard F. Norman T. Note the exclusive use of the masculine pronoun. Leo Carruthers Woodbridge, Suffolk: D. Brewer, , Tolkien, ed. Janet Bennet Croft and Leslie A. Rose A. Zimbardo and Neil D. Isaacs New York: Houghton Mifflin, , Tolkien, The Letters of J.
Tolkien, The Tellowship of the Rinp , 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , II, ii, Tolkien, Tellowship ofthe Ringr , I, Prologue, Tolkien, Tellowship ofthe Rinp , I, i, Original emphasis. NjaPs Sajya, trans. The Sajya of Kinjy Hrolf Kmki , trans. Jesse L. Byock London: Penguin Books, , The Sajya of the People of Laxar dal, trans. My translation. Murphy, Borovsky, Tolkien, Letters , John D. Mary A. Tolkien, Fdlowship ofthe Rinjq , I, i, Borovsky, 15 Tolkien, Return ofthe Kinp, VI, ix, Bibliography Anderson, Sarah, with Karen Swenson.
Borovsky, Zoe. Brand, John. London: Reeves and Turner, Carruthers, Leo. Leo Carruthers, Woodbridge, Suffolk: D. Brewer, Chamberlain, Mary A. Chance Nitzsche, Jane. Tolkien's Art. London: Macmillian, Clark, George. George Clark and Daniel Timmons, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Clover, Carol.
Damico, Helen. Helen Damico and Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, EgiTs Saga. In The Sagas of the leelanders , trans. Katrina C. Attwood with a pref- ace by Jane Smiley, and introduction by Robert Kellogg, New York: Viking, Flieger, Verlyn. Isaacs, Frederick, Candice and Sam McBride. Lewis , J. Tolkien, and Charles Williams , Goebel, Stefan.
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Burns and Christopher Reagan, Jochens, Jenny. Women in Old Norse Soeiety. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Kent, Susan Kingsley. Marian Dexter Fearned. PMFA 7. Fewis, C. Murphy, Michael. Niemneh, Shadi. NjaTs Saga.
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Translated by Robin Cook. New York: Penguin Books, Rateliff, John D. The History of the Hobbit. Part One: Mr. Tolkien , eds. The Saga of the People of Laxar dal. New York: Penguin Publishing, Simpson, Jacqueline and Steve Roud. Shippey, Tom. Sinclair, Michael Hoey, and Gwyneth Fox, Robin Waugh and James Weldon. The Fellowship of the Ring. The Hobbit. New York: Ballantine, Humphrey Carpenter. The Return ofthe Ring. Tolkien was, over time, influenced by his own personal medievalism. It is also well-known among Tolkien scholars that Tolkien utilized a tremendous amount of the scientific understanding of his day in flesh- ing out the details of the cosmology , 5 geology , 6 paleontology , 7 botany , 8 and other aspects of Middle-earth.
For example, Tolkien famously wrote of The Lord of the Rinpfs in a draft to a letter to Joanna de Bortadano: Of course my story is not an allegory of Atomic power, but of Power exerted for Domination. Nuclear physics can be used for that purpose. But they need not be. They need not be used at all. If there is any con- temporary reference in my story at all it is to what seems to me the most widespread assumption of our time: that if a thing can be done, it must be done. This seems to me wholly false.
The welTdocumented tension in Western culture between gender and Science can be found as early as ancient Greece, specifically in the organicist perspectives of Plato and Aristotle. The views of their respec- tive schools differed in how they incorporated gender into this view of the world. Gender politics has provided resources for the advancement of Science, and Science has provided resources for the advancement of masculine domination.
And, just as God intended that man should dominate and control women, God intended man should dominate and control nature.
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We have no right to expect nature to come to us Nature must be taken by the forelock, being bald behind. They have acquired new and almost unlimited powers; they can command the thunders of heaven, mimic the earthquake, and even mock the invisible world with its own shadows. One does not simply mutilate the body of Mother Earth. With this anthropomorphized view- point gone, replaced with a vision of the Earth as nothing more than spiritless dirt and stone, the need for metais and minerais easily super- seded environmental concerns.
For ye will have joy in the finding, and so grow from childhood and become wise. Therefore we spoke less and less to the Voice. Thus humanity fell from Science into technology, from the satisfaction of merely understanding into a desire for practical uses; as a result, their personal relationship with their Creator suffered. Contrast the language used in the above tale with GimlPs organicist feelings concerning the Glittering Caves of Aglarond: No dwarf could be unmoved by such loveliness.
Do you cut down gr oves of blossoming trees in the spring- time for firewood? We would tend these glades of flowering stone, not quarry them. So the Entwives made gardens to live in Many men learned the crafts of the Entwives and honoured them greatly. In an interesting note to a letter to W.
One final character whose actions clearly demonstrate an organicist perspective is Tom Bombadil. He merely knows and understands about such things as concern him in his natural little realm. Interestingly, an organicist view of the world is also found in the Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis, which argues that living things and the wider geologi- cal, physical, and Chemical environment interact in such a way as to self- regulate, just as the organs and Systems of any living creature would in order to stay alive.
More controversial versions of the hypothesis suggest that the universe had no choice in its fine-tuning because the eventual existence of intelligent observers was a necessity. In the medieval world, both in its primary and Tolkienian forms, one could recognize, respect, and celebrate both the Otherness of the natural world and simultaneously our connection to it. As Stenmark summarizes this K. People know the world, because they are a part of the world and because they are in a relationship with it.
In this authoCs mind, this is not only the ultimate goal of Science, but one of the most fundamental rewards of immersing oneself in Middle-earth. Jane Chance, ed. Richard C. Judith A. Johnson, J. Shippey and the Creation of the Next Canon , eds. Humphrey Carpenter, The Letters of J. Harding, The Science Question, Merchant, The Death ofNature , 2. Merchant, The Death ofNature, Wesley J. Merchant, The Death of Nature, Tolkien, The Two Towers, 2nd ed.
Carp enter, Letters, Tolkien, The Silmarillion, Carpenter, Letters , Tolkien, MorpfothSRing, Campbell, Lcolojjical Augury, Campbell, Leolojyieal Augury, Marx W. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , Curry, Defending Middle- earth. Matthew T. Campbell , Lcolojyical Aujyury. Harding, The Seienee Question. Freeman and Co. Keller, Refleetions , Keller, A Leelinjy , James E.
Campbell, Leolojyieal Aujyury, Longair Dordrecht: D. Reidel, , R Tolkien, The Silmarillion , Bibliography Campbell, Liam. The Eeolojyieal Augury in the Works of J.
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Zurich: Walking Tree Publishers, Longair, Dordrecht: D. Reidel, Chance, Jane, ed. Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: A Reader. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, Curry, Patrick. Dickerson, Matthew T. Lexington: The University of Kentucky Press, Fausto -Sterling, Anne. New York: Basic Books, Harding, Sandra. The Seienee Question in Eeminism. Hazell, Dinah.
The Tlants of Middle-earth: Botany and Sub-ereation. Kent: The Kent University Press, Hynes, Gerard. Jeffers, Susan. Johnson, Judith A. Tolkien: Six Deeades of Critieism. Westport: Greenwood Press, Keller, Evelyn Fox. A Feelinp for the Orjyanism. New York: W. Reflections on Gender and Science.
Larsen, Kristine. Coventry: The Tolkien Society, Rateliff, and Robin Anne Reid, Jefferson: McFarland, Lovelock, James E. Merchant, Carolyn. San Francisco: Harper and Row, Mitchell, Maria. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein, or The Modern Erometheus.
New York: Signet Classics, Snow, C. New York: Cambridge University Press, Stenmark, Lisa. Wildman, The Two Towers. The Silmarillion. Wartofsky, Marx W. West, Richard C. Tolkien Criticism: An Annotated Checklist. Born with adult V. The Uruk-hai are, to put it crudely, born as shit. Naming this aperture as anal, we may recall how that term, as Lacan reminds us, etymologically names a ring, and thus how the O, the nothingness, from which the Uruk-hai are born repeats not only the shape but also the function of the One Ring.
Where the novel finds in homosexual meandering a nonproductive waste of time, the film imagines perversity as an indecent form of reproduction, an endlessly proliferating sterility, which will, if unchecked, lay waste to the world. Saruman manifests his villainy in the same crass impersonation with which the queer is eternally charged, the same second-rate imitation of a norm whose own contingent status is strategi- cally concealed. Here queer multiplication functions to divide, cordoning off the morbid- ity against which the heterosexual family, its own endless self-replication notwithstanding, will triumphantly define itself.
After Houghton Mifflin published hardcover editions of The Lord ofthe Rintfs in , the American paperback edition was delayed, allowing Ace Books to exploit a Copyright loop- hole and print an unauthorized edition in But itself barren. Only through technological artifice do the films produce a vision of a pre-industrial world in which that same artifice, working as a site of displaced queer sexuality, appears as a future-negating abomination.
But Jackson is surely not the only one to inhabit that paradox, and the truth, as usual, is more complicated. This shift from object-choice to reproduction recalls the contemporary debates around marriage equality in the USA, which suggested that same-sex love may be tolerated as long as normative familial structures continue unaltered. Tolkien, The Two Towers , 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , App.
F, , Christopher Tolkien Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , ROHY William Shakespeare, King Lear. The Riverside Shakespeare , ed. Blakemore Evans Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , 1.
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Edelman, Halperin New York: Routledge, , Guy Hocquenghem, Homosexual Desire , trans. Humphrey Carpenter Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , Walter Benjamin, Illuminations , trans. Harry Zohn, ed. Robert Hurley New York: Vintage, , Benjamin, Walter. Translated by Harry Zohn. Hannah Arendt. New York: Schocken Books, Butler, Judith. Halperin, Kathleen Coyne Kelley and Tison Pugh, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, Edelman, Lee. Ellis Hanson, Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: An Introduetion. Translated by Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage, Hoberman, J.
Hocquenghem, Guy. Homosexual Desire. Daniella Dangoor. Durham: Duke University Press, Peter Jackson. New Line, Longino, Bob. McKay, Alastair. Robert Eaglestone, New York: Continuum, Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Tpistemolojyy of the Closet. Shakespeare, William. The Riverside Shakespeare. Blakemore Evans. Christopher Tolkien. The Fellowship of the Rinjj. New York: Ballantine Books, MorgotRs Rinjj.
The Return ofthe Kinjj. Boston: Houghton Miflfin, TolkieiYs widely known The Lord of the Rinpfs. On March 28, , in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, J. We Hobbits have against them no magic weapons. Yet, my gentlehobbits, I give you this toast: To the Hobbits. May they outlast the Sarumans and see spring again in the trees. Tolkien likens Saruman to a long winter dur- ing which fecundity has been suppressed.
Yet legitimizing as normal and natural, a certain range of sexual variants inevitably leads to the exclusion of everything outside it. And new sexualities, including learned ones, might have as much validity as ancient ones, if not more. But for a liberated sexuality, Tolkien has little sympa- thy. In a letter to his son Michael in on the subject of marriage, he gives a very hard line: The dislocation of sex-instinct is one of the chief symptoms of the Fali. J ason F isher p rovides a stute guidance in this area of Tolkien scholarship.
At other times, we can speak with confidence a bout a t ext t o which Tolkien refers in his letters or in his scholarship, say Sir Gawain and the Green Knijyht. But we do not always have such definitive evidence. A text may possess resonances and not appear in proximity to TolkieiTs legendar- ium. It is inconceivable that Tolkien would not have known about AlakTs treatise. Lewis examines the shifts in the expressions of courtly love over the centuries; it is a book Tolkien knew and read. Tolkien drew upon and wrote on works by Geoffrey Chaucer, who refers to Alain directly in his Parliament ofFowls.
Plato does not per- sonify Nature in his Timaeus , but this work informs those like Aristotle, who speak of Nature Physics as working alongside God. According to George Economou, Macrobius is the first to personify Natura as a crea- tor [ artifex ]. Boethius employs the celestial figure of Lady Philosophy and supplies a prosime- tra, a text of alternating verse and prose, that will be used by many who come after him including Alain.
There is much in AlanTs text that Tolkien would have enjoyed. De Planetu contains a naturalized Christianity championed by a female divinity through the employment of reason. Alain expresses through a fairly proverbial language the authohs concern over and rebuke of misguided eros. The inner workings of the seemingly pagan mythology are inextricably linked to the Christian reform movement of the twelfth through four- teenth centuries.
She had recently given her charge over human behavior to Venus, who displayed great irrespon- sibility and wantonness. The text describes the attire and signification of each figure and concludes with the excommunication. De Pltmctu lends itself to a fascinating comparison with The Lord of the Rinjys when examining the prominent motifs and imagery. Given the focus of this argument around Saruman, I will briefly summarize here what I cover more comprehensively in another essay. The nostalgic and elegiac voice laments the inevitable degradation of the world; things are not nor can they ever be again as beautiful as they once were.
With her fountains set in the deep woods 24 and her mirror, 25 she reminds one of Galadriel. Suggestive of a moral weakness, luxuria grouped together a number of sexual sins. The degree to which it referred to sexual behaviors specifically or to a broad range of acts is the subject of thorough scholarship.
While non-procreative, these prac- tices were paradoxically seen as spawning a figurative form of progeny. The anathematized in De Planetu are first and foremost identified by their host of vices. Alain spends considerable time elabo- rating on the effects of all three, supplying proverbial phrases that serve to elucidate his points.
Tolkien, Self And Other:This Queer Creature (The New Middle Ages)
John Treloar locates six vices in The Lord of the Rintfs and attributes them to specific characters in the story. Much like those in De Plimctu , Saruman covets material things. And it will afford me some comfort as I wander to think that you pulled down your own house when you destroyed mine. He becomes an active agent of this destruction again and again, as we see toward the novefs end. Aside from Sauron himself, Saruman struggles the most with his hubris out of all other charac- ters.
He is the chief of my order and the head of the Council. His knowledge is deep, but his pride has grown with it, and he takes ill any meddling. Each time he engages with Gandalf, it becomes clear that Saruman sees himself as superior. During his first attempt to persuade Gandalf, Saruman arrogantly asserts that he is more than fit to rule Middle- earth. Vice gives birth to vice; monstrosity breeds monstrosity.
The unmistakable con- clusion is that sexual behaviors outside the parameters of procreation and the vices linked to these behaviors manifest a wrongful and harm- ful fecundity that paradoxically reads as sterility. On the surface, bodily lust seems conspicuously absent not only from The Lord of the Rinjjs , but also from its earliest scholarship, as if this one particular vice was somehow absent in Middle-earth. Rather, it is deemed monstrous 61 and an opposition to reason. In his misguided desire for control and knowledge, Saruman behaves much like those in AlauTs text; he gives himself over to his desire for the One Ring and attacks nature not only when cutting down the forest but C.
And it is by this depravity that he is drawn closer to a community of brutes. Thus, Gandalf softly sang, and then suddenly he changed. Casting his tattered cloak aside, he stood up and leaned no longer on his staff. Only Gandalf could be seen, standing white and tall before the blackened hearth. However, the Bosworth-Toller C. How long is it since Saruman bought you? What was the promised price? When all the men were dead, you were to pick your share of the treasure, and take the woman you desire? Too long have you watched her under your eyelids and haunted her steps.
Associated only with Grima in the novel, overt sexual desire is read as impure and depraved and is contrasted against the brotherly love of Eomer and the noble love of Faramir to come later. It is a form of lust that reflects the deterioration of morality in Middle-earth and a presage of what is to come if Saruman succeeds in his plans. I want to hear more about them. Were they rough and dangerous lookin? Did they lurk in the woods after curfew to exchange stashes of pipe-weed and ale?
Did they brawl with each other or maybe serve as sadistic guards at the Lockholes prison at Michel Delving? These are meant to be more than provocative and potentially arousing questions. Like Like. Many congratulations to you, the other authors, and the editor. So great to see your work being recognized! Congratulations to you and your colleagues, Brenton, on this splendid win. It is an exceptional book, and the contribution you made to it is essential and wise. You are commenting using your WordPress.
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Start the Journey! Click Here! Exploring the mystical and rational while expanding common spiritual ground among caring people. An exploration of the story arc and its deeper meanings from ancient epic tales to contemporary literature, film, and television. A Pilgrim in Narnia. Lewis, J. Tolkien, and the Inklings. Skip to content. Home About. Idea-Seeds in C. Posted on August 6, by Brenton Dickieson. I would like to acknowledge the other nominees for this year. Like this: Like Loading Tolkien, and the worlds they touched.
This blog includes my thoughts as I read through Lewis and Tolkien and reflect on my own life and culture. I am often peeking inside of wardrobes, looking for magic bricks in urban alleys, or rooting through yard sale boxes for old rings.