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Halophiles

Alias-Villegas, L. Laiz, and C. Rubrobacter bracarensis sp nov. Xiang, W. Guo, W. Feng, M. Huang, H. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Yang, and Q. Community of extremely halophilic bacteria in historic Dagong Brine Well in southwestern China.


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Schwartz, L. Wagner, and W. A greedy algorithm for aligning DNA sequences. J Comput Biol. The strength of the correlation was examined according to Hinkle et al. Hinkle, D. Wiersma, and S. Applied statistics for the behavioural sciences. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. An evaluation of the chemical and physico-mechanical properties of historic brick and paint-coated plaster was conducted in order to assess the extent to which they provide suitable conditions for the growth and proliferation of halophilic microorganisms.

Compressive strength results markedly varied between 5. The range of salt levels in materials according to WTA 45 is marked with the dashed line. Foraboschi, P. Experimental investigation on bricks from historical Venetian buildings subjected to moisture and salt crystallization. Eng Fail Anal. Physico-mechanical and chemical features of mineral materials. The moisture content of the mineral materials studied varied between 0. Piotrowska, M. Otlewska, K. Rajkowska, A. Nowicka-Krawczyk, G. Wolski, B.

Gutarowska, A. Abiotic determinants of the historical buildings biodeterioration in the former Auschwitz II—Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. Fassina, V. Favaro, A. Naccari, and M. Evaluation of compatibility and durability of a hydraulic lime based plaster applied on brick wall masonry of historical building affected by Rusing damp phenomena. J Cult Herit. Larsen, E. Decay of bricks due to salt. Mater Structur. From the point of view of the present study, pH is a very important characteristic of mineral-based materials for the growth of halophiles.

The optimal pH range for halophiles cultivated under laboratory conditions was previously reported to be between 6. Otlewska, B. Gutarowska, and A. Halophilic microorganisms in deteriorated historic buildings: insights into their characteristics. Acta Biochim Pol. Tiano, P. Accolla, and L. Phototrophic biodeteriogens on lithoid surfaces: an ecological study. Microb Ecol. One of the critical characteristics of mineral materials is the salt content, which is determined by the concentrations of sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates.

Water-soluble salts accumulate in walls as a result of the transport of water by capillary action from the ground. These salts may crystallize on the surfaces of porous media as efflorescence or inside as subflorescence 9. Eloukabi, H. Sghaier, S. Nasrallah, and M.


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  6. Experimental study of the effect of sodium chloride on drying of porous media: The crusty—patchy efflorescence transition. Int J Heat Mass Transf. Coz, M. Physico-chemical characterization of bricks all through the manufacture process in relation to efflorescence salts. J Eur Cer Soc. Brocken, H. White efflorescence on brick masonry and concrete masonry blocks, with special emphasis on sulfate efflorescence on concrete blocks.

    Constr Build Mater. Espinosa, R. Franke, and G. Phase change of salts in porous materials: crystallization, hydration and deliquescence. Stryszewska, T. Microstructure of ceramic brick contaminated by magnesium sulphate. Adv Sci Technol.

    Historic mineral materials with symptoms of deterioration were found to contain various hygroscopic salts, such as chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates, near the surface. An EDS analysis of these surfaces showed that the chemical composition of salt efflorescence, within the buildings of the former Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp, varied.

    A Brick sample B3—the presence of sodium chloride; B paint-coated plaster sample P1—the presence of sodium sulfate. Crystals of sodium chloride on brick sample B3 element content according to an EDS analysis: Chlorine 9. Soluble salts, such as gypsum, halite, calcite, sodium sulfate, and potassium-sodium sulfate, found in the tested samples, are widespread components of efflorescence in historic buildings.

    Laiz Ripka, J. Weber, and K. The micro-biota of a sub-surface monument the medieval chapel of St. Virgil Vienna, Austria.


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    However, it currently remains unclear whether marked variations in the chemical compositions of salt efflorescence as well as spatial and temporal changes are conducive to the growth and proliferation of halophilic microorganisms. In order to clarify this issue, samples of mineral materials were subjected to a microbiological analysis. Samples B1—B4 from construction elements inside the buildings of the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp had low sulfate 0.

    In these samples, no halophilic microorganisms were detected using culture-dependent methods Fig. Irrespective of the type of material, the total count of halophilic microorganisms for these samples was markedly higher than that for samples from the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. The number of halophiles in paint-coated plaster from inside the townhouse ranged between 1.

    The positive correlation in terms of the sulfate content and halophile growth needs to be highlighted. Therefore, the presence of these microorganisms may be influenced by the sulfate content. According to Schneegurt Schneegurt, M. Media and conditions for the growth of halophilic and halotolerant bacteria and archaea, p. Vreeland ed. Springer, Dordrecht. Dohrmann, A. Chloride dependence of endospore germination in Halobacillus halophilus.

    Arch Microbiol. Quantitative and physiological analyses of chloride dependence of growth of Halobacillus halophilus. Wanner, and V. Motility and flagellum synthesis in Halobacillus halophilus are chloride dependent. J Bacteriol. Sewald, and V. Chloride dependence of growth in bacteria. Madigan, M. Thermophilic and halophilic extremophiles. Cur Opin Microbiol. Chloride dependence of glycine betaine transport in Halobacillus halophilus.

    FEBS Lett. Ripka, K.

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    Molecular characterization of Halobacillus strain isolated from different medieval wall paintings and buildings material in Austria. Culturable bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were detected and isolated from brick samples B1—B7. Halobacillus spp. In their study of salt-damaged medieval wall paintings and building materials from Herberstein Castle in St. Johann bei Herberstein, Styria, Austria and St.

    Virgil Chapel in Vienna, Austria, Ripka et al. Molecular Techniques: Application to the analysis of microbial communities colonizing art works and to the monitoring of changes. Case study: Wall paintings of the castle of Herberstein, p. State-of-the-Art Studies. Diaz-Herraiz, M. Jurado, S. Cuezva, L. Laiz, P. Pallecchi, P.

    Tiano, S. Sanchez-Moral, and C. Deterioration of an Etruscan tomb by bacteria from the order Rhizobiales. Sci Rep. Imperi, F. Caneva, L. Cancellieri, M. Ricci, A.

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    Sodo, and P. The bacterial aetiology of rosy discoloration of ancient wall paintings. Fewer species were detected in paint-coated plaster samples P1, P2. Fell, J. Sterigmatomyces , a new fungal genus from marine area. Anton Leeuw. Pangallo, and L. Sci Total Environ. In addition, the culture-independent methods applied to paint-coating samples enabled the detection of only one member of the class Actinobacteria , related to Rubrobacter sp.

    Miller, V. Jurado, E. Akatova, S. Sanchez-Moral, J. Gonzalez, A. Dionisio, M. Macedo, and C. The pH measurement of concrete and smoothing mortar using a concrete powder suspension. Cement Concrete Res. Salt efflorescence appears to be widespread in historic buildings. Locally concentrated hygroscopic salts as well as those present across porous building materials migrate in water through capillary action, dry out, and precipitate on the surface, eventually forming salt deposits Ettenauer, J.

    Jurado, G. Miller, M. Santner, C. Saiz-Jimenez, and K. Halophilic microorganisms are responsible for the rosy discolouration of saline environments in three historical buildings with mural paintings. Ettenauer, and K. La vie en rose: a review of rosy discoloration of subsurface monuments, p. Saiz-Jimenez ed. Taylor and Francis Group, London. Aberle, T. Keller, and R. Efflorescence mechanisms of formation and ways to prevent. The salty deposits on the surfaces of historic buildings offer suitable saline niches that appear to promote the growth and proliferation of halophilic microorganisms Laiz, L.

    Recio, B. Hermosin, and C. Microbial communities in salt efflorescences, p. Cifferi, P. Tiano, and G. Mastromei ed. Springer, New York. Saiz-Jimenez, C. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation. De Leo, L. Bruno, D. Pangallo, and C. Complex bacterial diversity in the white biofilms of the Catacombs of St. Callixtus in Rome evidenced by different investigation strategies. Environ Microbiol. Pangallo, D. Piombino-Mascali, F. Maixner, A. Zink, and K. Halophilic bacteria are colonizing the exhibition areas of the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, Italy. The considerable capacity of halophilic microorganisms to inhabit salt efflorescence cannot be neglected, and appropriate restoration strategies need to be implemented in order to prevent microbial growth and protect cultural heritage.

    Although previous studies focused on the types of halophilic microorganisms in the masonry of historic buildings Ramos, S. Schabereiter-Gurtner, D. Vybiral, W. Lubitz, and E. Detection of indigenous Halobacillus population in damaged ancient wall paintings and building materials: molecular monitoring and cultivation. Appl Environ Microbiol. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the chemical and physico-mechanical properties of mineral materials influence the presence, biodiversity, and proliferation of halophilic microorganisms in historic buildings.

    Within this framework, we deal with the central question of whether salt efflorescence on historic materials constitutes a suitable environment for the development of halophilic microorganisms. This study involved the following steps: [1] The chemical and physico-mechanical characterization of historic materials, including pH, moisture content, compressive strength, and the contents of chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates; [2] Examining the effects of the salt contents of the materials on the growth and biodiversity of halophilic microorganisms.

    The buildings were barracks no. B, B, and B, and trickling filters B located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka, and a 19th century historic townhouse in Lodz, Poland. Samples of materials were taken from internal and external structural elements in the form of drilled cores for chemical and physicomechanical analyses , and directly from salt efflorescence Fig. Efflorescence on the outside wall of a sedimentation tank B A ; Stereomicroscopic images of a brick sample sample B5 with visible symptoms of salt efflorescence on the surface B ; Detachment of paint coating due to salt efflorescence on the wall of a 19 th century building C ; Stereomicroscopic images of paint-coated plaster sample P1 with visible symptoms of salt efflorescence on the surface D.

    Chemical sulfate, chloride, and nitrate contents and pH and physical testing humidity were conducted on the 50 samples collected. Due to the historic importance of the buildings, the number of large samples drilled cores with a diameter of mm was markedly limited and collected following consultations with the monument conservator. Thus, we could only collect 10 samples to assess the compressive strength of walls. These samples were selected by analyzing salt contents according to the salt content classification criteria in Salt level of mineral materials The diversity of non-culturable halophilic bacteria was tested in four samples B1, B3, B6, and P1 characterized by a low to high salt content and evaluated by the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries Sampling sites and type of alteration.

    Samples were cylindrical cores with a diameter of mm and a length corresponding to the thickness of the walls approx. Czasopismo Techniczne. Chemical tests included the assessment of pH and contents of sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates in core samples of mineral materials. They were ground in a ball mill Fritsch to a grain size less than 0. Aqueous extracts were subsequently made at a ratio of ground material to distilled water. The concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate ions were measured using certified test kits from Tintometer GmbH kits no. The results obtained were expressed as a percentage of the weight of the entire sample.

    Samples were analyzed stereomicroscopically using a Discovery V20 microscope Zeiss. Tests were performed on uncoated samples, prepared in the form of fracture surfaces. The microbiological colonization of historic mineral materials was assessed using the plate count method. One gram of mineral material was suspended in saline 0. The amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was performed with the universal primer pair 27f and r Muyzer, G.

    Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction—amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. App Environ Microbiol. White, T. Bruns, S. Lee, and J. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, p.

    Innis, D. Gelfand, J. Shinsky, and T. White ed. Academic Press, San Diego. Mineral samples were ground under liquid nitrogen using a mortar and pestle. DNA was extracted from 0.

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    Ligation products were transformed into E. The screening of clone libraries was performed as described by Otlewska et al. Otlewska, A. Adamiak, and B. Clone-based comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from biodeteriorating brick buildings of the former Auschwitz II—Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. Syst Appl Microbiol. Adamiak, J. Otlewska, and B. Halophilic microbial communities in deteriorated buildings. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. Gutarowska, B. Celikkol-Aydin, V. Bonifay, et al. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis—modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic building.

    Front Microbiol. Jurado, V. Miller, C. Alias-Villegas, L. Laiz, and C. Rubrobacter bracarensis sp nov. Xiang, W. Guo, W. Feng, M. Huang, H. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Zhang, Z. Yang, and Q. Community of extremely halophilic bacteria in historic Dagong Brine Well in southwestern China. Schwartz, L. Wagner, and W. A greedy algorithm for aligning DNA sequences.

    J Comput Biol. The strength of the correlation was examined according to Hinkle et al. Hinkle, D. Wiersma, and S. Applied statistics for the behavioural sciences. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. An evaluation of the chemical and physico-mechanical properties of historic brick and paint-coated plaster was conducted in order to assess the extent to which they provide suitable conditions for the growth and proliferation of halophilic microorganisms. Compressive strength results markedly varied between 5.

    The range of salt levels in materials according to WTA 45 is marked with the dashed line.

    Halophiles

    Foraboschi, P. Experimental investigation on bricks from historical Venetian buildings subjected to moisture and salt crystallization. Eng Fail Anal. Physico-mechanical and chemical features of mineral materials. The moisture content of the mineral materials studied varied between 0.

    Piotrowska, M. Otlewska, K. Rajkowska, A. Nowicka-Krawczyk, G. Wolski, B. Gutarowska, A. Abiotic determinants of the historical buildings biodeterioration in the former Auschwitz II—Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. Fassina, V. Favaro, A. Naccari, and M. Evaluation of compatibility and durability of a hydraulic lime based plaster applied on brick wall masonry of historical building affected by Rusing damp phenomena. J Cult Herit. Larsen, E. Decay of bricks due to salt. Mater Structur. From the point of view of the present study, pH is a very important characteristic of mineral-based materials for the growth of halophiles.

    The optimal pH range for halophiles cultivated under laboratory conditions was previously reported to be between 6. Otlewska, B. Gutarowska, and A. Halophilic microorganisms in deteriorated historic buildings: insights into their characteristics. Acta Biochim Pol. Tiano, P.