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Product Description

The covers and fastening pieces of the containers shall be convenient to operate, and will not be loosened or break off during the process of hoisting and conveying. The exterior of the containers shall be even, and easy to decontamination and avoid water from being accumulated on the top.

The containers can only be used after having been approved. The applicant shall submit a report including the following contents to the competent authority for reviewing and approval: 1. Scope of application. Design standards, detailed engineering design and illustrations.

1. Introduction

Materials, composition, dimensions, manufacturing, and corrosion prevention of the containers. Test methods, standards, and results. The threshold values of non-adhesive contamination on the surface of a container that is filled with radioactive waste are as follows: 1. The contamination of Alfa nuclides shall be not more than 0. The surface of a container that is filled with radioactive waste shall be marked with a radiation warning symbol and a serial number.

The radius of the inner circle of the radiation sign shall be not less than 2cm. Radiation monitoring equipment shall be provided.

Management of Radioactive Wastes | SpringerLink

Fire detecting or fire fighting equipment shall be provided. The function of discharged water collecting and sampling equipment shall be provided. The functions of receiving, detecting, operation monitoring, and storage of waste shall be provided. The maximum storage activity and storage capacity shall be determined.

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Appropriate measures shall be adopted to reduce the rate of corrosion of the containers. The waste in the storage facilities is retrievable. Seismic resistant shall be provided to ensure the safety of the equipment and structure. The design of the storage facilities of high level waste shall meet the following provisions additionally: 1. The functions of heat removal and maintaining the sub-critical shall be provided. The requirements on nuclear protection shall be satisfied. The radiation protection design of the storage facilities shall be made in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 1, Article 5.

The radiation-protection design of the storage facilities of nuclear reactors shall meet the provisions of the laws and regulations on the control of nuclear reactors. The storage facilities shall be operated in accordance with the safety analysis report of the facilities and the regulations on radiation safety protection. Without the stabilizing treatment, the storage of low level waste generated from the operation of treatment facilities and nuclear reactor facilities shall not exceed five years. Once the assessment show the stabilizing treatment can not be carry out within five years, the operator shall submit a stabilizing treatment plan to the competent authority for approval prior to continue exceed store.

Waste without the stabilizing treatment, before these amended Regulations are enforced on October 22, , the operator shall submit a stabilizing treatment plan within one year to the competent authority for approval prior to implementation. Where corrosion or deformation of container or deterioration of the solidified waste form occurs when the storage facilities are receiving radioactive waste or during the period of operation, the operator shall carry out maintenance.

The maintenance operations shall meet the following provisions: 1. Where the climate is not suitable for maintenance, the operations shall be suspended. Training on radiation protection, maintenance operation, emergency response, and labor safety and hygiene shall be provided for the maintenance workers.

Maintenance shall be performed under the supervision of the radiation protection personnel recognized by the competent authority. The maintained containers shall be marked in accordance with the provisions of Article The threshold values of non-fixed contamination on the surface of the maintained containers shall meet the provisions of Article The concentration of the suspended substances in the air in the maintenance operation area shall meet the provisions of the Ionization Radiation Protection Act.

The operators shall evaluate the storage facilities once every ten years, and submit an evaluation report including the following contents to the competent authority for review and approval: 1. Examination and evaluation of the facility structures. Examination and evaluation of the hoisting equipment. Evaluation of the storage status of the waste. Evaluation of storage operations.

Decommissioning Radioactive Waste

Evaluation of the impacts of radiation. Lesson learnt of the abnormal events occurred in past ten years. Preliminary decommission plan. The General Radioactive Waste Plan is published with the aim of improving the management of waste generated at each facility.

Treatment Methods for Radioactive Wastes and Its Electrochemical Applications

The General Radioactive Waste Plan also serves to ensure that no radioactive waste is managed by conventional means and to forecast all types of radioactive waste that can be generated, including that from dismantling. The General Radioactive Waste Plan considers the risks, both radiological and otherwise, that are associated with radioactive waste, to define global solutions. The General Radioactive Waste Plan establishes the management lines for all types of solid radioactive waste and spent fuel and associated temporary storage, so that:.

Reduction is based on the contained use of raw materials and the restriction of materials and products entering the radiological controlled area to avoid possible radioactive contamination.

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Further application of this principle includes significant reductions in generation achieved through:. The principles of separation and recycling try to manage all of the waste including that which is radioactive, following the criteria for minimization at the source for which infrastructure has been implemented to separate the waste at collection points where products are collected separately and, where necessary, adopting human resources that perform specific tasks of direct measurement of radioactive waste, to select and separate those without contamination.

Regulated Waste

The promotion of reutilization, as well as separation, and recycling is done in the training sessions taught by staff in aspects of environmental and radiation protection. Safety assessments of different kinds and frequencies are carried out during the whole life of the projects. Specifically during the operation phase the following amongst others can be mentioned: annual quality assurance audits, biennial company safety review board audits, decennial comprehensive periodic safety review. All of these are performed by the licensee, in addition to the frequent audits performed by the regulatory authority.

As mentioned before, according to the Spanish legislation the responsibility for the management of activities arising from the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities in Spain lies with ENRESA. The responsibility to estimates the cost of decommissioning activities covered by the GRWP corresponds to ENRESA who calculates those costs based on waste production and decommissioning plan estimations, and review this regularly for fee calculations. This website uses own and third party cookies and technologies to enhance your visit by adapting browsing to your preferences.

NECSA's Cheryl Akortia on radioactive waste management

By continuing to browse our site, you accept our cookie policy. You can change the settings or get more information Here. Medium Activity: Waste with a radionuclide content that requires shielding and heat dissipation equipment during transport and handling. High Activity Highly radioactive liquids primarily containing fission products, like some actinides, that are separated during reprocessing of spent fuel or chemicals aqueous waste from the first cycle solvent extraction and accompanying waste streams.

Any other waste with intense activity levels sufficient to produce significant amounts of heat through radioactive decay.

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Spent fuel from the reactor, if declared as waste. Tool for internal communication and, where appropriate, external management of radioactive waste. Commitment to proper management of radioactive waste, according to general rules for the operation of its facilities.