Unusual in its integration of comparative theory and practical analysis, Power and City Governance contributes significantly to the long-standing debate over the structure of community power. Table of Contents. Cover Download Save. Title Page, About the Series, Copyright pp.
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Contents pp. Preface pp. Acknowledgments pp. Introduction pp. Modes of Governance in Comparative Perspective pp. Urban Structuring and Restructuring pp. State Structuring and Restructuring pp. Urban Governing Alignments and Realignments pp. Policy networks are informal or semi-formal organisational mechanisms involving public and private individuals, groups, organisations and associations that interact around specific policies and programmes.
Network stability derives from establishment of trust, reliability, reputation and customary rules to which network members adhere. Network maintenance is secured by the access members have to resources and influence in projects. Network management, brokerage and facilitation are necessary functions. It acts as an umbrella for various environmental initiatives, rendering environmental policy more efficient. There should be three kinds of primary research instrument. The first of these is a survey communication delivered to one key respondent per each city e.
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These should be confined to those responsible and relevant including purchasing and outsourcing officers for the four municipally governed content areas that are main contributors to increased CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Within municipal jurisdiction these are, it will be recalled, food consumption, passenger transport, energy use and municipal waste. A variety of electronic follow-up measures should be utilised to achieve a scientifically valid response rate.
Questionnaires should be drawn to explore items broadly indicated below:. Policymakers: Sustainability policy history; Policy development process; Policy learning, monitoring, reformulation; Benchmarking, networking locally and overseas; Policy representation, engagement with community; Cross-functional policy interaction; Multi-level policy interaction, co-ordination, disconnections; Marketing; Policy success; Uptake of policy instruments; Policy weaknesses, barriers, problems; Future policy ideas, visions, measures,.
Transnational Networks: Initiatives taken to facilitate or animate sustainability forums, conferences etc. Attendance at external and overseas interaction events; Leadership roles in transnational sustainability networks; Perception of value of these; Organisation and involvement in foreign study visits to observe good practice; Learning gains or losses from engagement in transnational networks and visits; Attendance at relevant conferences, trade fairs and exhibitions for related to climate change, food quality, health, cleantech, recycling, waste management and energy sustainability home and abroad.
Civic Leaders: Values, norms, conventions; Leadership; Envisioning; Monitoring of action results; Learning processes; Benchmarking elsewhere, including overseas; Reputation, trust in communities; Business climate; Evaluation of status quo ; Policy quality; Skills availability; Infrastructures; Weaknesses and barriers to progress; Future requirements and political, business or associative expectations. Finally, the third primary research module of the project would be a series of face to face interviews with an illustrative sample of the surveyed cities and their governance networks based on the Fig.
Some forty-five interviews five per city; ratio internal:external to municipality might be envisaged on the assumption that each taxonomy box in Fig. They should explore more deeply and with a semi-structured interview guide, matters of particular theoretical, analytical and policy interest to this research.
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Unexpected or inadequately articulated responses to survey questioning should be clarified. A considerable effort should be made to gain understanding for and the appropriateness of the allocation of cities to the nine categories. If reasons for modification arise, adjustments will be justified at this time. These should involve, returning to Fig. These alignments should thus, in principle, differentiate nine sustainability governance categories Fig.
Variable weightings of content areas in relation to emissions contributions should be considered, and extent of network governance practice and quality of outcomes will be determinate in rankings.
Power And City Governance: Comparative Perspectives On Urban Development
In this section and in the space available we have time to consider two key variables that act as key conditions consistent with action to mitigate climate change problems in CEE cities, regions and national governments. The first of these is the extent to which the position regarding for example climate change causing global warming emissions are significantly worse than those of, for example, partner countries in the EU or future ones in OECD, for example, as cases in point.
Another key variable is the quality of human capital in CEE countries that may be mobilised both to recognise any problematic characteristics scientifically and in to respond robustly to such a situation in policy terms. Regarding the first issue, it may be clearly seen Figs.
As can be seen from Fig. This is of course in line with our discussion in the Introduction of measures that have been taken even at city and local level in Denmark that contribute significantly to the reduction in energy use, wastage and other measures concerning the type of energy that Denmark utilises with a view to minimising its overall contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO 2 , NOX and Methane, the worst causes of global warming and consequent climate change. Denmark is a benchmark for the whole developed world in terms of its commitment to moderating its, albeit small, overall contribution to global warming.
It is important to understand the role of democratic and informal protest politics in bringing about change over a relatively lengthy year period. This was when the first wave of serious popular concern about the environmental damage caused by economic growth occurring in Western countries. As will be indicated below, this led to the early development of clusters of renewable energy innovation, particularly around wind turbine and solar thermal equipment manufacture. The impact of this is captured in data from the European Commission that shows Denmark as a whole being one of the Clean Technology leaders.
Thus in , according to the European Commission:.
They include offshore turbines and water purification. The Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs FORA report shows that a further 46 knowledge institutions consider themselves to be primarily active in environmental technology research. This is a powerful cognitive and ideological process by means of which a discourse of action and promotion occurs within the state apparatus but articulated both to wider, global concerns, the interests and concerns of local business, and a modernising discourse expressing a policy-advisory consensus, in this case privileging clusters, innovation and climate change.
For illustrative purposes, clearly, upon inspection, the quote from the European Commission European Commission report is taken directly from the FORA report. This report shows how the FORA business and economic research unit defined environmental businesses and mapped a Danish cluster. He referred there to a cluster as:. With regard to such clusters the most important analytical task is to establish the extent of interconnections, commonalities and complementarities since this is what distinguishes a localised cluster, its specialisation or differentiation and its potential for exploiting knowledge spillovers for competitive advantage.
Eight of these were identified. Next, these answers were assessed in relation to sub-cluster critical mass unspecified , knowledge world class or not , and market potential preferably global. Interestingly, photovoltaics, another pronounced cluster in north Jutland is not highlighted in this report Cooke Companies in such industries were then asked what frame conditions i. These included regulation, stimulus to collaboration, public research funding and entrepreneurship. This interpretation is supported in respect of the location of business interviewees, where larger Jutland firms like Vestas and Siemens Wind Power wind turbines , Grundfos and Danfoss both engineering feature more strongly among the environmental technology interlocutors.
Nevertheless, focusing momentarily on wind energy, the question of whether what is in North Jutland is a wind-turbine cluster has to be addressed. On this, Andersen et al. Andersen et al. But latterly, especially since the government subsidy to producers was removed in , the scale of equipment has increased tenfold and sea power from large-scale offshore wind farms has come to predominate.
As wind turbines have only some ten years life expectancy, most early wind turbines in rural Denmark will soon disappear if they have not already done so. There may be less local sourcing of key equipment like gearboxes than in the early days when North Jutland shipbuilding firms could adapt to meet the nascent wind energy demand. However, the scale and adaptability of German heavy engineering in cranes and related equipment means they now supply the Danish wind energy input market. Services and special logistics firms, the latter capable of transporting the now typically massive fibreglass turbine blades also exist in proximity as do a great many components suppliers.
Finally, as an indicator that relatively high and clean technology outcomes can arise from research in what is not normally considered a high technology industry, namely agriculture, we turn to recent developments that will have a major contribution to the moderation of global warming from high fossil fuel energy intensity by replacing it with agriculturally-derived Biofuel. Decades of research at the world-leading Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research IGER at Plas Gogerddan on the Cambrian Coast a few miles north of Aberystwyth have been devoted to the apparently prosaic aim of improving cattle and sheep fodder.
After lengthy experimentation and some false moves in the knowledge exploration and exploitation processes, IGER in the s came up with a global winner in fodder technology. This is a cross-bred rye grass product, the original variant of which was named AberDart. IGER patented this ryegrass because it is no ordinary grass. It is, indeed a supergrass, otherwise known as SugarGrass.
Whence SugarGrass? IGER bioscientists wanted to understand how to increase yield and quality of meat raised on Welsh grasses. This took them inside the rumen of these ruminants. This deprived the animals of precious protein and explained why, although the meat might be sweeter from the clovers, thyme and other mountain herbs consumed, it remained lean not to say meagre. The innovative insight was to recognise the need for sugar-suffused cross-bred grass that would satisfy the enzymes yet leave plenty of extra protein for the beef and lamb to augment and improve the nutritional and flavourful protein in the meat.
Other brainwaves for the future will arise from research currently being conducted into the utilisation of yellow lupins as possible super-fodder, returning nitrogen to the soil as their seeds are turned into cake for cows and sheep, the rediscovery of kale as a general, improved cattle food, and a chemical fertilizer-free soil improvement regime based on utilisation of organic manuring, suitably modernised. These are all good news for the future of a low pollution agriculture with cleaner water, air and soil as important by-products. But this is merely the beginning of the SugarGrass story.
As the head of Bioenergy research put it, in interview, IGER had begun to evolve a second string to its grassland expertise by developing a renewables research division. One of the biofuel feedstocks in which it became supreme was the growing and processing of high calorific Miscanthus , more popularly known as Elephant Grass, an African tall grass that grows on marginal land. But in any case, SugarGrass is also twice as calorific as Miscanthus and IGER favours this technology as the best long-term bet to replace oil. So much so that the results of a key meeting with Welsh Government officials about the prospects of funds to help build an experimental biorefinery were said to be promising.
Thinking had gone as far as to speculate that when oil ceases to be refined at the huge Milford Haven refineries in neighbouring Pembrokeshire, the pool of talent and infrastructural sunk costs would make them ideal candidates for becoming SugarGrass and Miscanthus biorefineries. Hence economic development for an agricultural industry that has been hard-hit by food scares and a desperate need for farm-based diversification in rural Wales is also a consideration in this bioenergy research perspective.
But it is not simply a spinout-venture capital model that is in mind.
True to the traditions of co-operation among Welsh mountain farmers, there is a new vision of mixed farming whereby groups of farmers grow Miscanthus on their poorest soil, devote some fields for SugarGrass fuel cropping and raise quality Welsh Lamb or Welsh Black Beef on their best SugarGrass land. But the prospective is that farmer co-operation would enable them to undertake local, small-scale biorefining. SugarGrass is fermentable for extracting the juice that becomes ethanol to be used on farm or sold.
Power And City Governance: Comparative Perspectives on Urban Development
But the dried remnants can also be used either as fodder or as feedstock for yet another bioenergy variant, biomass power station burning. A bio-revolution seems to be afoot in rural Wales, as not only biofuels but bio-composites are also being researched and experimentally produced among groups of entrepreneurial farmers linked to Bangor University in north Wales. Simultaneously, investment has been announced to take place for large scale non-CO 2 emitting power generation facilities in various locations around Wales, burning bioethanol, wood pellets, exploiting tidal barrage power and wind energy.
Hence, the expectation might be that renewable energy sources will come on stream in time to replace demand from what, it would further be hoped, would be a cleaner conventional energy industry that today, in Wales as in EU Accession countries and CEE blocs discussed above. In Wales, a latecomer compared to Denmark, regarding emissions controls it was shown that even relatively humble crops like grass for cattle feed can, when improved through research and innovation, make a globally valuable source of bioethanol and biomass energy generation.
It is incumbent on CEE countries to observe and apply these types of cellulosic sources of alternative, renewable energy as their fossil-fuel burning power stations inevitably decline unless they are appropriately modernised in line with new, exacting EU emissions targets.
This can act as a lighthouse pointing the way for the CEE blocs that are not constrained by EU conventions but will nevertheless be made aware of their climatic obligations by the new, tougher constraints that will arise following the Copenhagen climate summit. The time for action has nearly passed, with some commentators saying we need immediate massive reductions in CO 2 if global warming is to be steadied let alone reversed.
Agency CEP. Working for the Environment. Given the intimate linkages between a growing middle class, urban transformations, and aspirations for a certain lifestyle embedded in western urbanism and modernity, what role do the emerging middle classes play in urban politics and governance? To some extent neo-liberal urban governance is argued to work in the interest the middle classes and urban elites, at the expense of the working class and the urban poor.
While greater socio-spatial inequalities are evident, these shifts could also mean greater socioeconomic diversity in various urban neighborhoods. How do these experiences fit the assumptions about a globalizing consumerist middle class? Middle classes are also central actors with major political power, and have been an important part of recent popular mobilization and social movements. In Brazilian cities, for instance, popular protests targeted government spending, corruption and maladministration. Can the emerging middle classes also be drivers for political alternatives that can contribute to sustainable and inclusive cities?