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Nuevas citas sobre este autor. European journal of medical research 2 11 , , However, economic constraints and sociopolitical factors may be the essential determinants in the development EMS in developing countries.
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Road traffic safety awareness. Traffic accidents are the target of pre-hospital emergency services. Government policies on traffic and driving ordinance should be legislated to protect the driver and public safety. In order to reduce the incidence of traffic accidents and release the burden to pre-hospital EMS service, public health injury prevention polices are required.
A well-organized traffic control system and driver's driving behavior are the main concern. Besides, public education on road traffi c safety is necessary. Public education. This study shows that adult patients aged 15—60 years need EMS more particularly than other age groups in Shenzhen. This finding is quite different from that in Hong Kong and other countries.
It can partly explain the unique characteristics of EMS in the mainland of China and their relations to the importance of public health education. Although EMS is adopted a "fee for servic" system, inappropriate ambulance use still exists as a worldwide problem. It is important for the medical authorities to educate the public on the proper use of EMS, first-aid care and emergency response through mass media.
Kalinowski  suggested that "Public education is essential to assure appropriate access, utilization and injury prevention". For initial response, public health workers rural and public safety personnel urban are the first line of responders. Therefore, formal public health education and emergency care orientation are necessary. This study provides some clue to the health authorities in the planning, budgeting, training, and operation of EMS.
Since the Shenzhen EMS registry system is not a mature one, we reviewed only part of the data collected in Shenzhen. A standardized computerized registry system is necessary to reflect the true picture of EMS in Shenzhen.
Apart from the demographic information, the data such as patient outcome, morbidity and mortality, length of hospitalization and admission rate are significant indicators for planning of pre-hospital and inhospital services. In conclusion, the EMS system in Shenzhen has its own characteristics. Traumatic injury and traffic accident are the main reasons for calling ambulance services. Adult patients call frequently EMS.
To strengthen the emergency response network, paramedic personnel with specialized pre-hospital training and professional qualifications are needed. The collaboration between prehospital and in-hospital emergency trauma team support can foster the improvement of the emergency medical services system in Shenzhen.
We are grateful to our colleagues who contributed to data collection and analysis, preparation of the manuscript, and administrative support. Funding: None. Ethical approval: Not needed. Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Contributors: Lo SM proposed the study and wrote the paper. All authors contributed to the design and interpretation of the study and to further drafts.
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China's demographic history and future challenges review. Science ; — Guiding the construction of China's emergency medical services system with "the three links theory". Chin J Hosp Admin ; Confronting the challenges of emergency medical services in Shanghai.
Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 1997
Resuscitation ; — Trauma care systems in China. Injury ; — EMS systems in China. Prospects for the pre-hospital emergency medical services in China in the 21st century. Chin Hosp ; 7: 11— Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong Province Publishing House of Tongji University.
The establishment of a distinct emergency rescue network system in Shenzhen. Chin J Emerg Med ; — The problem in the building pre-hospital departments and pre-hospital care. Chin J Crit Care Med ; — Practice and investigate of emergency medical service system in Zhengzhou. Chin Hosp Management ; 42— An epidemiological investigation on the cases of Shanghai prehospital care in Population distribution features analysis of hospitalized injury patients in Shenzhen City from to Prev Med Tribune ; — Review and prospect the development of national and international Emergency Medical Service System.
Tracheostomy Pages Bishop, G. Regional Capnometry Pages Vallet, B. Nutrition and Survival Pages Griffiths, R. Pages Radermacher, P.
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Can Intensive Care Units be Compared? Pages Lamb, F.
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