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Welcome to Shapes Salon and Studio A primary download russian suits her unlimited. New York control use spectra a research of display clinical thrombi. They tend to make fun out of men and women who are too preten- tious. Wisdom and humbleness are advised to these men and women. The Lwa of the Rite Ginen, coming from Dahomey, are reputed to be the ones who do not accept their servants chwal to be involved in wrong doings or killings.
If Ginen servants break moral or mystical rules, they will be pun- ished when they attend any Voodoo ceremony dedicated to the Lwa Ginen. It is another question what followers or the clergy of these religions do with the principle of respect for life in their daily lives and its effect on the course of History. Nevertheless the universal existence of this respect for life constitutes a solid guideline for all peoples in all societies. One can con- sider it, along with universal prohibition of incest, as the first basic structur- ing step toward society and culture.
Voodoo Religion and Haitian Violent Deep Culture Voodoo evolved in racist, segregated colonial Saint-Domingue and par- ticipated in all phases of the struggle against slavery and colonialism. Male Voodoo priesters, the Houngan, female Voodoo priesters, the Mambo, and Voodoo followers in conflict situations use killing and harmful ca- pabilities given by their belief systems, with supernatural and magic knowledge. Unexplainable diseases, deaths and the well known zombies, which remain unexplained through Western medicine, are part of daily conversations.
In the census of murders, crimes and violent acts, these unexplained diseases and deaths are not counted. It is urgent to study this aspect of violence, crimes and murders in order to evaluate the true crime and murder rate. Catholics use pilgrimages and novenas in various churches, calling upon saint patrons. Protestants invoke specific psalms. The propensity of Voodoo, Catholic, and Protestant followers to choose violence and harm in conflict situations shows that they are all participating in the Haitian violent deep culture.
But only Voodoo followers tend to be stigmatized and considered as being prone to use violence and killing. Our thesis is that Haiti, besides being visibly violent and murderous at certain moments of its history, continues to be in a permanent and latent civil war situation, which pervades every aspect of social, economic and po- litical life. Politics are characterized by an infernal squaring of accounts which ends up in murder, exile, prison and defamation. Because of this, honest Haitians who are not violent-prone tend to avoid committing them- selves to active politics.
Voodoo Religion and the Nonkilling Perspective It is evident that there exist in Voodoo nonkilling, loving, and sharing ca- pacities. There are moments of communitas as expressed in fifteen days to one month ceremonies organized by Voodoo participants, especially in Lwa Ginen ceremonies. It is also a fact that the Voodoo religion constitutes a wall against the process of Christian evangelization and westernization in Latin America and the Caribbean. Haiti continues to be unique with its miseries, its historical and cultural particularities which make it incapable to take, thus far, successfully the road of the neo-liberal globalization process.
It is also a fact that until today, the context of emotions and confronta- tions, inward and outward, of ethno-class struggles surmounted by color prejudices, of struggle for socio-political and economic power, of existence of an aggressive Christian, Catholic, Protestant evangelization, and of the exis- tence of a Voodoo religion evolving in a situation of social discrimination and semi-clandestinity, does not constitute a favorable climate for open and truth- ful discussions about violence, killing and human sacrifices in Voodoo. Such discussions would be possible and fruitful if the violent war against Voodoo would cease in sermons in Catholic and Protestant churches.
Furthermore, Voodoo priesters and followers like Catholic priests and followers, and Protestant pastors and followers should undergo a process of an individual and collective self-reeducation in order to neutralize and eradi- cate the viruses maroonning, cutting off heads, burning houses, the complexe tigre, and complexe marsouin. Then Haiti needs to liberate itself from these destructive concepts and create constructive, nonkilling, peaceful concepts. Voodoo will be the first beneficiary, free of killing threats and real killings!
We came here to spend a few days together building friendships and solidarity with each other in our great task of helping to build a world of nonkilling, justice and love. This is a rather large task, but we are not alone in this work. Indeed how do we build a World without violence? We must be patient and admit our shared vision of a nonkilling world may not be fulfilled in our own lifetime.
To create a nonkilling culture we start from our own inner conviction that every human life is sacred and we daily cultivate within ourselves a deep reverence for all life and creation. The more deeply conscious we be- come of our own gift of life and the presence of this mysterious love, the deeper becomes our love, compassion, and respect for others, including our enemies indeed we lose this whole concept of enemy!
This practice of reflection of the gift of life and consciousness, also awakens our inherited sense of justice, and we become more aware of injustices against others, of our part willingly or unwillingly in such injustice, and our responsibly to act justly and choose wisely, as we know every act has its consequence. Millions of choices, some small, some not so small! So a Nonkilling World starts in our own minds, when we can choose to disarm our mindsets of violence, militarism, and war, and use the alternatives of nonviolence open to us.
We can choose also to live fully alive, and be happy, in the present moment gifted to us. This is both a spiri- tual and a political choice and it is a personal and a community one, as we commit ourselves to the nonviolent service of others. We must not make false divisions between non- violent believers and unbelievers.
We are the human family, interconnected, interdependent, and we need to work together, no matter what our differ- ences, to the common goal of building a more just and humane world for all. We are faced with many threats to our very survival, both the animal and human world, and these can only be overcome by building strong bonds of friendship and cooperation at all levels of society and across our world. We are challenged to build vibrant, active nonkilling democracies from the local community upwards and at the same time across the cosmos.
New organiza- tions, new institutions, new ways of identifying and solving problems, and sharing resources, must be sought and shared, as this new consciousness of humanity and our mother earth evolves. An ethical, value based code of con- duct, which we can all share is needed and the principal of love one another and do not kill is, I believe, one that can touch all our hearts. And change can come about if we speak and act at a heart level. That is why we need as a human family to reach out to each other in friendship and love.
We must insist on our Governments, speaking to Representatives of armed groups in order to deal with their grievances as the British Government spoke to the Irish Republic Army to solve the Northern Ireland conflict. There are always alternatives to Violence, Militarism, and War and we must insist that our World Governments and Leaders use these alterative methods open to them. Dialogue in conflict resolution indeed does work, as has been proven in Northern Ireland. Militarism and paramilitarism feed a deadly cycle, and only dialogue can break this.
Our alternative tools are deep listening and unconditional dia- logue. We must develop our skills and alternatives to violence, so they are effective and life-changing. Alternatives such as the excellent Nonviolent Peaceforce need our support and encouragement, as they prepare unarmed peace workers for conflict zones, as alternatives to armed intervention.
Edu- cation will be an important vehicle for creating a new Culture of Nonkilling, and the Nobel Peace Laureates and UN Decade for a Culture of Peace and Nonviolence for the Children of the World continue to bear fruits in many innovative peace education programmes. I was so excited to see recently a TV programme showing Teachers in Primary school teaching young children how to understand and deal with their emotions such as anger and fear.
Overcoming our fear of ethnic annihilation, embarrassment, and death will be our greatest challenge as we develop a nonkilling culture. This Charter will be formally launched in December in Rome. It sets out Principles which I believe we as humankind will find speak to many of our hearts and minds as values we can identify with and own. It gives voice to the need to respect every human being and the environment, uphold human rights and International Law, and sets out the vision of a world without violence.
It is hoped this Charter will be supported by Youth, Civil Society, NGOs, Governments, Faith traditions, and will add to the many other Charters, Treaties and International Legal Agreements which help us as humankind to build a foundation of justice and peace for all. I would like to propose that this Forum also support this Charter as I believe it will prove valuable in encouraging our Governments, and others, to seek alter- natives to violence in their Policies and programmes. I believe too that the growing movement to encourage Governments to set up Ministries of Peace about which you will hear from other speakers involved directly with this will give great encouragement to us all.
Another hopeful sign is the recognition by many World Bodies, that violence is a health issue. We can each do something to prevent it. Governments are elected to provide peace and human security for their people. Can they say they are succeeding when the incidents of mental health in every country in the world is increasing: Depression chil- dren as young as 7 ; Suicide one a day in some countries , etc. What Poli- cies and funding are in place to deal with such sad and tragic signs of hope- lessness and despair?
Do not their policies of War, Nuclear Weapons, Arms deals, Invasion and occupations, and the violence of counterinsurgency groups, shown every day on television screens beamed into homes around the world, create climates of fear, powerlessness, depression, and desensita- tion of children to cruelty and violence? How much we need those important pillars of society Faith traditions; Governments; Media; Edu- cation; Arts to help articulate and give voice to alternatives, which give confi- dence and empower people to believe in themselves, build strong communi- ties of support, and have hope for their future.
I applaud and congratulate the many in these Bodies who are already doing a great deal to bring about political and social change. This movement includes groups representing millions of people and is indeed the real Superpower, which says No to War, and Yes, to Jus- tice and Peace. Their agenda and policies have identified the real and most immediate threats to humanity, such as: 1.
Climate change 2. Poverty and marginalization of the majority of the World 4. Competition over resources, and 5. Global militarization. They are asking their political leaders, what are your policies on these threats to our survival? In this work we are united and it is only a matter of time that our political leaders are forced to change their Policies and begin playing an important role in the building of a culture of world equality and justice.
We all work for that day to come soon, but in the meantime we as indi- viduals are called to be true to our own conscience and live out our own lives nonviolently and with as much truth and integrity as possible. Ariyaratne Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement In Sri Lanka's past the nonkilling popular culture of loving kindness as well as the official institutional forms were in harmony.
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Today the two cul- tures work in opposite directions. Crimes are on the increase, leading to in- ternal bloody wars in many countries. Corruption, poverty, environmental degradation, bad governance, violation of fundamental Human Rights, disre- spect for laws, miscarriage of justice and corruption are common features in modern societies.
Therefore an integrated approach has become neces- sary to bring about a nonviolent transformation of our society. The Sarvo- daya Shramadana Movement of Sri Lanka has been active for 49 years since to build all the integral elements to bring about this transformation.
If I may briefly mention the various sectors in which this transformation can be brought about, six sectors come to my mind. These are the spiritual, moral, cultural, social, economic and political sectors. First, renewal of spirituality in the human being and human society. Re- ligiosity is not the same thing as Spirituality. Spirituality has to be extracted from religious bigotry, religious factionalism, sectarianism, superstition and inter-religious rivalries and conflicts. The Sarvodaya Movement in Sri Lanka is working in 15, villages in- habited by people professing Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity and their different forms.
In all these villages we are working on a portfolio of basic human needs that have to be satisfied for the people. When they get benefited from their own efforts, working with their own self-reliance, community participation and indigenous value systems, with a guidance pro- vided by the Sarvodaya Movement, they are able to rise above racial, com- munal, religious or political divisions and come together as one human family.
Through small and large gatherings of diverse people, practicing meditation on loving kindness, we have succeeded in harnessing a collective conscious- ness for peace and for working towards the ideal of a nonkilling society. The second sector is pertaining to interpersonal relationships. They do not get together to oppose other groups of people who be- long to another communal or religious group because they have tran- scended such divisions.
They do not get together to waste their time in de- structive activities such as consuming intoxicants or gambling or gossiping. People engage themselves in constructive activities such as conserving the environment, building community water systems, constructing houses for the people who have no shelter, constructing access roads to villages, mak- ing irrigation tanks and canals to provide water for their rice field and so on.
People can perform constructive work. Third is the cultural sector. Advancement in spiritual and moral life of a people invariably leads to an advanced culture. It will be a culture of peace. It will be a culture of nonkilling. It will be a culture of creative art, literature, music, dancing, architecture and so on. In other words spiritual and moral advancement in a society will build a form of culture that becomes the standard bearer of a new society and a new civilization that will last for dec- ades and centuries. So far, we have talked about the spiritual, moral and cultural foundation needed to build a nonkilling society.
For us in Sri Lanka, during its 26 centu- ries of recorded history, this kind of society has existed from time to time as I mentioned before. If we are to take lessons from the past, and try to develop such a society with all its imperfections it will be still worth the ef- fort. That is what the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement has tried to do for the last 49 years. Three more sectors have to be developed to complete the paradigm of a nonkilling society we wish to build.
They are social, political, and eco- nomic sectors. In all these sectors we have to organize training pro- grams so that people themselves undertake the responsibility for social de- velopment. Sarvodaya has established 12 development institutes purely to train people in all those aspects of social development. We bring pregnant women with their husbands to Sarvodaya centers and educate them in best practices of child development and pregnancy, and meditation practices so that the parents learn to communicate with the unborn children. When a child is born, we have day-care programs for mother and child up to two and a half years.
The Challenge of Nonkilling Global Transformation 69 Then preschool programs from two and a half years to five years. With this early childhood foundation we encourage children through elementary, higher and vocational education and also have several programs for adults, both for leadership and vocations. Education for life, through life, and throughout life is our motto. Similarly with regard to other aspects of social development I men- tioned above we have developed comprehensive training programs. The fifth sector in this integrated approach is the economic sector.
Greed invariably leads to hatred, conflict, violence and even wars. To develop non-greed, it is necessary to cultivate voluntary simplicity and teach people to value simple lifestyles based on satisfaction of basic human needs. In other words, an alternative economic system needs to be developed. This system should give priority to ecology over economy, nonrenewable re- sources have to be preserved, nature has to be protected, pollution has to be eliminated, cutthroat economic rivalries have to be replaced with conscious sharing communities.
In other words, path to a nonkilling society is possible only if we succeed in building a nonviolent economy. Sarvodaya Economic Enterprises Development Services is an effort in that direction. The last and sixth sector we have to restructure is our political system. Today all political organizations, democratic or undemocratic, have the one objective of capturing power at the top. Once they have captured power they do not want to give it up. The centralized party and power political systems are ruining our entire human society.
They are the ones who build and maintain massive armed forces. They are the ones who take away the resources that can improve the economic, educational, health and cultural levels of people and invest them in armaments and prestigious projects. They are instrumental in allowing small weapons, marketed around the world leading even to civilian populations to settle their disputes by taking up arms and engaging in violence.
This system of politics leaves half of the world hungry and poor. There is no doubt we have to change this system. This can be done by transforming the consciousness of people to believe in their own ability to govern themselves. Small communities maybe family units can easily form their own democratically elected community councils who can take over the political functions. In Sri Lanka we call it vil- lage or community self-governance. If we can have thousands of such self- governing communities in our countries, the global society also will become community based.
That is the beginning of creating a nonkilling global community. If we have the courage to decide ourselves for peace, we will have peace! If you are not de- cided to resolve things in a peaceful way, you will never come to a peaceful solution. Following Einstein, it is possible for us to foresee in that even be- yond war a hitherto unthinkable world in which human beings cease to kill each other can be realized. Following Einstein, it will depend upon courage, will, and transforming leadership skills to evoke awareness of the Global Nonkilling Spirit, to assemble and advance needed knowledge, to pursue appropriate policies, to mobilize or create needed implementing institu- tions, and to educate transforming leaders and constructive followers to achieve global nonkilling conditions.
The goal is both finite and infinite. It is both measurable the killed can be counted and open-ended. Open to infi- nite human creativity in realizing killing-free societies. We can envision the possibility of moving in the 21st century from a global culture of killing—marked by homicide, suicide, terrorism, genocide, war, and threats of nuclear and other mass annihilation—with all their harmful side effects psychological, economic, and ecological —building upon efforts to create a global culture of nonviolence and peace—to focus precisely upon bringing about a global culture and practice of nonkilling as a major step forward in the advancement of civilization.
The book Nonkilling Global Political Science ; 2nd ed. Most humans have never killed. Al- though we are capable of killing, we are not by nature compelled to kill. Most faiths and philosophies teach not to kill, as demonstrated in our opening panel. Faithful nonkilling witness by some in every faith enlightens the path for all. Unprecedented self-understanding of nonkill- ing human capabilities from bioneuroscience to every field of knowl- edge is becoming possible.
Scientific knowledge of the causes of killing, the causes of nonkilling, the causes of transition between killing and nonkilling, and the characteristics of completely killing-free societies will assist human self-liberation from lethality. Public policies such as complete abolition of the death penalty by leaders in 88 countries and accep- tance of conscientious objection to military service in 47 countries demonstrate possibilities for nonkilling transformation in societies with violent traditions. Despite instances of repressive atrocities, these courageous movements demonstrate that people can seek freedom from violence, poverty, denial of human dignity, environmental despoliation, and obstruction of problem- solving cooperation without killing.
Some dominant forces are learning nonkilling responsiveness to these popular demands. Institutions based upon nonkilling principles have arisen to serve human needs in many parts of the world. They in- clude those in the fields of religion, politics, economics, education, arts, human rights, and defense of the environment. Some are represented in this Forum. If adapted creatively to the needs of any single society, the basic institutional structure of a nonkilling society already exists.
Humankind can benefit from nonkilling his- tory to avoid entrapment in the lethal legacy of the past. For example, we have much to learn from the history of the abolishment of capital punishment and acceptance of conscientious objection to military ser- vice. If human history like human nature had not been predominantly nonlethal, humanity long ago would have become extinct. Viewed globally, courageous people in every vocation—singly, paired, and in groups—famous and unsung—testify to recurrent human capability to discover and act upon nonkilling principles of respect for life.
We are privileged to have in our Forum many who have risked their lives for a nonkilling world. The fact of your participation in this unprecedented Global Nonkilling Leadership Forum at the beginning of the 21st century provides evidence of will and skill to cooperatively contribute thought and action toward realization of nonkilling societies in a nonkilling world.
Our Forum demonstrates the convergent power of nonkilling faiths, as well as of inheritors of the Jain, Gandhian, Muslim, Kingian, Doukhobor, and secular nonkilling traditions. Our keynote teacher from Sri Lanka, Dr. Our opening panel of teachers of the nonkilling spirit reminds us that the spirit of nonkilling can be found in every faith and philosophy to inspire and guide actions to bring about a nonkilling world.
The nonkilling roots of faith they share reveal the powerful potential of a universally awakened Global Nonkilling Spirit. Our panel of reflections on the nonkilling thesis by experienced political and scholarly leaders offers promise of eventual receptivity in global political and educational circles. We benefit from the extraordinary political experi- ence of former Jordanian Prime Minister Dr.
Linguistically varied humanity must be empowered with knowledge that it is possible to bring about a killing free world. The nonkilling thesis must be liberated from imprisonment in any particular language or culture. The Italian translation in Italy and the Bhojpuri translation in India have been completed but not yet published. A Gujarati translation is underway in Wisconsin. Our Forum introduces remarkable self-reliant efforts to awaken a na- tion, schools, rural communities, and even a kindergarten, to the nonkilling thesis.
In the Philippines, Dr. In Nigeria, Mr. Fidelis Allen has introduced nonkilling thought and action into boys and girls middle schools noted for violence and has reached out through Radio Nigeria. Nonkilling leadership and followership are needed for nonkilling societies.
Thus our Forum seeks lessons from past and present pioneers to strengthen nonkilling transformational leadership now and for the future. Our Forum benefits from the presentations by participants keenly associated with the legacies of Tolstoy Mr. Koozma Tarasoff , Gandhi Dr. Radhakrishnan , Abdul Ghaffar Khan Prof. Syed Sikander Mehdi , Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Bernard LaFayette, Jr. Recognizing the need for training nonkilling leaders, our Forum calls atten- tion to three outstanding sources of inspiration and experience. Charles L. Radhakrishnan and Mr. Dennis A. Drawing upon the wisdom and experience of Forum participants, as well as past pioneers and present colleagues unable to join us, our Forum explores the establishment of two servant leadership institutions to assist progress toward a nonkilling world.
Majali, former Prime Minister of Jordan. Second, a Center for Global Nonkilling to serve as a small creative catalyst for facilitation of needed nonkilling research, education-training, and policy in worldwide co- operation with individuals and institutions. As together we place the Forum as a nonkilling stepping stone toward a future nonkilling world we are mindful of the tragic realities of killing that plague present humanity.
We do not take them lightly but believe that pre- cise understanding of the causes of killing combined with creative determi- nation to remove them can prevail. We recognize readiness to kill as a cause of war, nuclear weapons, suicide bombings, homicide, economic injustice, human rights atrocities, and ecological devastation. We recognize readiness to kill rooted in functions of the brain and in blessings by religious and secular faiths. We recognize that removal of these causes and replacement by nonkill- ing reverence for life requires the mobilization of the nonkilling spirit, science, skills, and arts of all humankind from each individual to the whole.
For this task we recognize the catalytic importance of creative nonkilling leadership and inspired followership to which this First Global Nonkilling Leadership Forum calls attention with confidence that a nonkilling world is possible. This includes po- litical faiths that evoke patriotic loyalty to kill and as a path to po- litical martyrdom.
Ramachandran in the s and s for adaptation for comprehensive nonkilling university service to societies throughout the world. In essence, sources of nonkilling security poli- cies to complement and eventually replace conventional reliance upon lethality for security. The only true security is when no one wants to attack or kill you, your organization, or your country. Nonk- illing deterrence must be sought in mutual credibility not to kill.
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The unique experiences of two pioneering nonviolent ad- visors to government invite attention: Sr. Chaiwat served as Research Direc- tor for the National Reconciliation Commission of Thailand whose remarkable report Overcoming Violence through the Power of Reconciliation 16 May presents analyses and prescriptions of global relevance. This is by no means a straightforward task. In the course of my talk however, and in a typical interdisciplinary fashion, I will ponder on the con- cept of Global Ethics as the international moral code governing human ac- tivity and how that can relate to the Nonkilling Thesis.
I will root my ideas on human or humane based definitions. In order to achieve peace with himself, Man has been given qualities and characteristics of sense perception, a faculty of reflection, an instrument of reason as well as the gift of revelation. Man has thus become endowed with a heritage of ethics that enabled him to develop a wide variety of human relations, and define his existence in relation to his fel- low man, the community, society, country and humanity. It highlighted a number of principles that are close to the notion of natural rights.
Such principles form a minimum common ethical understand- ing between religions and the cultures adopting them. If we agree on the validity of the above principles, then we can propose areas in which Man needs to exercise his human responsibilities. In other words, if Man is to be on the right side of the ethical divide, he should be fully cognizant of his responsibility in dealing with Property, Freedom, Law, Work, Education, Environment, Peace, and most of all his fellow man.
However, the legacy of the 20th century as manifested by the use of modern technology in the service of hate and supremacy continues today. One reality is that mighty nations still consider that they can assert pre- emptive wars, experienced during the Third Reich and the Soviet period, and more recently in the part of the world that is called the Middle East. Glenn D. Paige, the force behind the historical event we are witnessing here, argues that if political scientists, scholars who dedicate their lives to the study of political power in its multi-faceted manifestations, do not challenge seriously the assumption of lethality, then why should anyone expect political leaders and citizens of the world to do so.
Can we wipe out killing from our minds? His vision for new politics is to dedicate itself to a diagnosis of the pa- thology of lethality, and to discover both prescriptions and treatments that can be shared with all who seek to eradicate killing from global life. Here, I would again ask the question of how we can implant such re- sponsibilities in the mind of Man.
How do we do it in such a dazzling world? Significance of the Nonkilling Thesis 81 I will not indulge into answering these questions although I am tempted to mention education as a key to building a fairer, more peaceful and more harmonious world. Such a need becomes evident as we witness conflicts within and between states on ethnic, racial and nationalistic grounds.
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That requires the building of a new Code of Conduct and humanistic order to cope with the pace of globalization. Education reform based on the concept of act locally and think globally has to be undertaken in all countries to cope with the globalization sweep- ing across the world and face up to conflicts emanating from the struggle between local and global or traditionalism and internationalism.
Moreover, we should not forget that globalization cannot be considered or perceived to be a Western imposition on the rest of humankind; globalization will be accepted as a way to modernize and enlarge each tradition while remaining faithful to the roots. For the macro look, I would propose that we refer to the Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development entitled Our Creative Di- versity, , which is an invaluable reference when discussing such matters.
A source of a global ethics mentioned in the paper is the idea of human vulnerability and the attendant ethical impulse to alleviate suffering where such is possible, and to provide security to each individual. Islam urges humans to avoid avoidable suffering and propagates some notion of the basic moral equality of all human beings.
This, I would hasten to add, leads me to pose the question of whether we can use these very Commandments as our yardstick in our judgment on the behaviour of states? Is there a world body that can tell a state, Thou shall not kill or Thou shall not steal? Is this the duty of the United Nations?
Need we as the world community establish a new body to ensure that states do not commit any sins against humanity? Old tribal tendencies today are replaced by patriotism and nationalism. A great challenge today is to have nonkilling theory, research, and action become more globally appreciated. He reports penetrating analysis with examples of several types of terrorism: state terrorism, state-supported terrorism, sub-state terrorism, social revo- lutionary terrorism, nationalist-separatist terrorism, religious extremist ter- rorism, right wing terrorism, and single-issue terrorism.
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Other thinkers have identified two principal recommendations to re- duce terrorism, but may not end it. First, since terrorism will always be with us, killing terrorists and threatening them with killing and oppression will not solve the problem; nor will smart bombs and missiles. Instead, since terrorism is essentially psychological warfare it must be countered with psychological warfare. Second, democratic processes are the best hope.
Significance of the Nonkilling Thesis 83 Once democratic processes are in play, through competitive participatory processes, most groups will disintegrate. This, to my mind, is an essential first step in appreciating the logic of nonkilling political analysis. We need to understand the causes of killing, both individual and collective.
To kill or threaten to kill terrorists will only create more terrorists. Therefore non-lethal alternatives are needed to diminish their actions and organizations. This is the challenge facing Nonkilling Global Political Philosophy. Can we not build an ark for the salvation of our common human kind? Killing becomes a source of self- destruction. Bodyguards kill their own heads of state, armies violate and impoverish their own people, and nuclear weapons proliferate to threaten their inventors and possessors. Both violence-accepting politics and political science, as such, in the last century largely failed to suppress violence by violent means.
The study of government and international politics ultimately has been unable to lay the groundwork and methodology for policy advice that goes to the roots of the causality of global violence.
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The current idea that political democracies and free markets will create societies in which people do not kill each other or kill or threaten to kill people in other societies is in need of fundamental re- examination. Issues such as the relationship between man and his fellow man, man and community, man and country, country and country, are really all but derivatives of the basic phenomenon of man and his behavior. This argu- ment leads me to propose that for us to look at ethics would be to define the term as the Code of Human Conduct or rather a set of unwritten By- laws pertaining to human relations.
Expanding this argument to the global scene would require us to substi- tute states in place of individuals as the main players in the global ethics sce- nario. In other words, when we are talking global, we are talking about states rather than humans. Such an order needs to be enforced by the responsible international will, away from the forces of dominance and hegemony.
In a world of plu- ralism and diversity, we must attempt to bring out the wealth of cultural heritage embodied in 6, languages and 10, cultures, and instill global ethics as a promoter for the culture of tolerance. This is in- deed the view of the World Commission on Culture and Development, which also proposes several more building blocks for a global ethics that I will mention for the sake of academic accuracy, for they are primarily an ex- tension of human behavior.
These include the principle of democratic le- gitimacy and public accountability. It needs to be underlined, however, that an encouraging trend is taking shape in that human rights standards are being adopted. They are finding legal and constitutional expression in a number of international and regional treaties. It seems that today the idea of human rights is becoming a firmly entrenched standard of political conduct and a pillar of any global ethics. Their extraordinary organization skills and influence have made this conference possible in such short time.
Those present today are of different nationality, religion, political idea and ideology. One may wonder what brings us together as a whole. I believe it is the common wish to free the people of the world from war and violence. I come from a country that possesses one of the most ancient cultures in the world—China. The world is paying more attention to this speedily rising country.
As we all know, in the process of developing her economy, and reinforcing na- tional capacity, China has been striving to achieve a harmonious society in- ternally. We have often said: we must strive to coexist in peace with other na- tions and political systems to achieve mutual economic progress, and to se- cure a safe environment. Especially in modern times, we Chinese people have absolutely ex- perienced national humiliation and chaos caused by war.
C B. This very lesson had been strictly followed by Shun in handling affairs of all kinds. He thereby won praise from Confucius Doctrine of the Mean. Hence we can know that following the doctrine of the mean from genera- tion to generation, both as a political principle and as a code of conduct can be traced back several thousand years. What Confucius did was to inherit the past and usher in the future by advocating the "doctrine of the mean" as the highest moral principle based upon belief that the doctrine of the mean serves fully to convey advantages in overcoming all kinds of moral short- comings.
The Doctrine of the Mean and the idea of the Middle Way that were emphasized and communicated in enculturation from generation to genera- tion have greatly influenced Chinese ethnic morality and ways of thinking and action, although in a gradual and silent way. Negative as this kind of influence might be, it is obviously different from the Western war-like tradition. It is just this doctrine of the mean that has played a decisive role in casting the peace- loving and anti-violence national character held by the Chinese people. If people regard other countries as their own country, there would not be any fights between na- tions.
If people in the world love each other, if countries do not fight with each other, and if families do not conflict with each other, there would not be any thieves, the emperor, officials, fathers and sons can be filial and kind to all, so the world is peaceful and in good order. So the sages who take world or- der as their business would all advocate love and prohibit evil. This was his famous proposition: Anti-Militarism. For hurting others to benefit himself. As for those who steal dogs and pigs of others, their behaviour is worse than those who steal fruit. For the more damage they bring to others, the worse their actions are against benevolence and the heavier are their crimes.
As for those who attack cities and countries of others, the crime is far beyond those who steal private property. The invading monarch abuses the name of bravery to get himself unjustified benefit. No crime is heavier than this. He was not against a just war. However what is really amazing is that the author of a book summing up war experiences ex- pressed neither superstition concerning violence nor any favourable feeling for wars. The second best way is to disrupt his alliances through dip- lomatic means.
The next best method is to attack his army in the field. The worst policy is to attack walled cities. When some struggle for a city is the ground on which they fight, they slaughter men till the city is filled with them. This is what is called leading on the land to devour human flesh.
Death is not enough for such a crime. Therefore those who are skillful to fight should suffer the highest punishment. At pre- sent Harmony peace is still based on national interests without which peace can only be of an unjust and shameful nature. Peace like war is the continua- tion of politics. Now the world is developing towards a multipolar one, while the new structure is yet to form. Although the Cold War has ended, the world is still not peaceful; it is still in a turbulent situation.
To strive for devel- opment and world peace is still the urgent task of peoples in the world. Smirnov Russian Academy of Sciences In in Moscow during the XIth World Congress of the International Political Science Association the first direct dialogue took place between the world community of political scientists and almost all of the then existing social disciplines in the Soviet Union that to some extent dealt with political problems.
Rather, more accurately, it was the first contact between West- ern political scientists, who then held predominantly positivist theoretical- methodological views and Soviet social scientists with mainly ideological or even ideologically determinist orientations.
Tolstoy and the Doukhobors, Tarasoff, First Global Nonkilling Leadership Forum, Hawaii
I confess that these ideas struck me immediately for several rea- sons. First, they confirmed the existence in the United States of true aca- demic freedom and theoretical-methodological and value pluralism. Sec- ondly, they showed that some humanist ideas of Lev Tolstoy that had been very close to my heart since childhood as influenced by my philologist Mother could be given a political science foundation. I was pleasantly surprised by his reaction.
Shakhnazarov, this contradiction was most fully and precisely expressed by Feodor Mik- hailovich Dostoyevsky. Such an unexpected judgment was unquestionably heresy, if we recall that at that time the Soviet Regime persisted in conviction at home and abroad that only organized struggle by all peace-loving people of the planet could finally end that threat—only by the victory of socialism throughout the world. The words of G. Shaknazarov immediately came to mind when the General Secretary of the CPSU Mikhail Sergeyevich Gor- bachev, of whom Georgi Khospoyevich had been an assistant, suddenly spoke about new political thinking.
Not only the events recalled above, but also world events between G. The influence of the idea of a nonviolent society as put forth by Paige is assisted by the fact that he does not hide the gigantic difficulties stand- ing in the way of its realization. He mercilessly exposes the roots and ideo- logical foundations characteristic of organized human civilization, including America itself, and precisely inventories the mainsprings, mechanisms and factors continually perfecting the weapons of killing and presents a statically detailed picture of the increasing scale of mass annihilation of people.
The author does not hide the fact that classical political science and the fundamental propositions propounded by the overwhelming majority of clas- sical political theorists and contemporary researchers rest upon the accep- tance of violence as the basic nature of the power-based political organization of society and political administration at all levels—from local to international.
Against countless and seemingly irrefutable evidence of violent human nature, Paige marshals historical-factual, ideological-philosophical and strictly scientific arguments carefully gathered and analyzed over a quarter century. For example, throughout the history of humankind only about one percent of human beings have ever killed another human. From ancient times there continue to emerge political leaders, religious prophets, spiri- tual teachers, thinkers, and heroic pioneers who have grounded themselves in nonviolent principles and have tried to put into practice various projects conducive to the creation of a nonviolent society.
A special role in bringing about a nonviolent society, Paige points out, belongs to science and especially to political science. He calls for a nonvio- lent scientific revolution. Paige pro- poses specific transition to rejection of killing in such fields of political sci- ence as political philosophy and theory, study of American government and politics, comparative politics and international politics.
Paige rightly points out that along with political science other areas of scientific knowledge can and must assist in the realization of a nonkilling so- ciety. He does not fail to note the rising call to reject violence and killing as in terrorism. To oppose them Paige repeatedly underscores the necessity for constructive policies, including creation of conditions for general opposition to war, elimination of poverty, the conduct of effective nonviolent struggle for human rights and dignity, defense of the environment, sustainable de- velopment, and so forth.
Through teaching from the s and by founding in the Center for Global Nonviolence in Honolulu, he has influenced numerous students and successors, developed courses, published books and articles, and has participated in many seminars, lectures and conferences. Nonkilling Global Political Science is the culmination of his devoted work. Its success is testified by the fact that it is presently being translated into 19 [30 in ] languages with a potential readership of more than 2. To the scientific community of trans- forming Russia and readers of Russian in the scientific communities of neighboring countries it puts forth new nonviolent paradigms in globalizing political science, and offers methods and perspectives for interdisciplinary cooperation in this endeavor.
It not only offers certainty to political leaders and society alike that the violent conflicts characteristic of development in the post-Soviet area can be overcome but also offers means for accomplish- ing this task. The basic ideas in this unique book can and should be accepted as the basis of common values for humanity in the 21st century as well as a program for their realization.
Foreword to the Russian edition: Obshestva bez ubiistva: Vozhmozhno li eto? Petersburg University Press, Wokocha Rivers State College of Education Conflict is part of humanity and it is a factor for social transformation, but the choice of strategies for resolution of such conflict has for long be- come a great concern to many.
Violence, a common approach in Nigeria among groups, individuals and the government spawns disorder and in many ways is counter-productive. Nigeria has been shaped by a culture of violence, a trait that has engendered human, emotional and material losses at various periods.
Cultism, emergence of ethnic militias and many other social vices that lead directly to killings are rampant in Nigeria. In short, cult groups are almost destroying campuses of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. They have brought unnecessary grief to parents in addition to rendering the authorities difficult times and near powerlessness over emplacement of de- cent administration in the educational institutions.
Killings, maiming and dis- figuring as well as sexual harassment have endured on university campuses as a result of the activities of cult groups and criminal gangs. Government has made several efforts to erase the problem of cultism from the school system in Nigeria but to no avail. For example, there now exists federal legislation that outlaws cultism and stipulates a jail term of five years or a fine of , Naira or both for students convicted of cultism. Early in Decree number 47 was promulgated by the Federal Govern- ment to empower governing councils of each university to proscribe any group operating within campuses whose activities are inimical to national security, public safety, order, morality and health.
These efforts on the part of the government appear not to have pro- duced the desired results. Being an educationist and a long time university administrator, my observation and conviction of the role of education in the transformation of any society cannot be over-emphasized. Indeed, no soci- ety or country develops without a sound educational system, but now this must be by discovering capabilities for eliminating violence in the society. It is this background that makes my partici- pation and that of Fidelis Allen in this forum highly monumental for the Ni- ger Delta, Nigeria and the world.
It therefore follows that to empower the teacher to play this role, government cannot be left alone for the moral and overall organizational development of a well-trained teaching force. The moral crisis in the education system in Nigeria can best be ad- dressed through education in which the teacher and the student are central both for practical vocational orientation in nonviolent problem-solving and for spreading the nonkilling thesis Wokocha, Therein also depend stability, development and peace in Nigeria.
I use the word because a gen- eration of morally decadent and violent youths is a dying one. Peace is a factor in development, and is needed from the level of the in- dividual, to interpersonal, social and group relations. It follows that educat- ing for the peace of any society is education for political stability, which is basic for planning and advancement. Indeed education is the most impor- tant instrument of social reengineering.
The process of achieving peace in the world actually begins with the in- dividual self. Only when individuals have peace with themselves can peace in the wider society be guaranteed. Significance of the Nonkilling Thesis 95 The teacher plays an indispensable role in this process. But, achieving peace with self, the foundation of peace at other levels, can be difficult to come without the collective endeavours on the part of the government and organisations like the Centre for Global Nonviolence to provide opportuni- ties for discovering individual potentials or capabilities for peace.
It is for this reason that the emergence of CGNV will continue to be a serious determi- nant of how much the extant culture of violence in the world would be curbed in the near future. CGNV Nigeria Institutional building for capacity-building is the key to engage teachers and the education system in general towards achieving a nonkilling society in Nigeria. I use this medium to appeal to all citizens of the world to support this crusade against killing in Nigeria and the world at large. Conclusion As a concluding remark, I thank Professor Glenn, his wife and the governing board of the Centre for Global Nonviolence, Honolulu, for inviting me and Fidelis Allen to attend this forum.
It is my hope that this will mark the be- ginning of new orientation on a global scale towards the problem of killing in the world. References Dewal, O. Nonkilling Global Political Science. Philadelphia: Xlibris. Wokocha, A. Since then many more wars ensued and several are ongoing. Some leaders and nations still employ mass violence and lethal force in pursuit of their goals against their perceived enemies: other nations or their own people.
Meanwhile, other forms of common violence and killing persist for vari- ous reasons, or for no apparent reason or justification. Deadly large-scale ter- rorism, not just the threat of it, has become a global phenomenon. Some forms of killing, abortion for example, are not even regarded as killing by some of its perpetrators. Thus the large numbers of killing of unborn babies. In this context a common perception might be that the most impressive scientific and technological advances that have raised the quality of material life for billions of people and revolutionized travel, communication and learning seem not to be matched by enough comparable improvements in human conduct and behavior, morality and spirituality.
All these manifestations have led many to believe that inhumanity and killing are inherent in human nature and therefore inevitable in most socie- ties if not in every society. He presents his theory of a nonkillng global society with great authority on the basis of considerable empirical data and scientific studies.
He also shows what needs to be done, among other things, to create and sustain nonkilling societies in the process of building a nonkilling global society. His book is so important, challenging, inspiring, and persuasive to some readers that it has been translated and published in ten foreign languages [fifteen in ], including Spanish, French, Arabic, Russian, Portuguese, three Indian languages, and Filipino. Many more translations are in progress. For his lifelong scholarly work in political leadership and nonviolent po- litical alternatives, Paige has gained international recognition.
Now Kalayaan College is pleased to present the Filipino version of his great work, entitled Walang-pagpatay na Agham Pampolitikang Pandaigdig. Paige has raised such fundamental and challenging questions in his great work. Empirical evidence is presented to disprove the belief and premise that human beings or human nature is inherently violent and that killing, not nonkilling, is the norm or rule in most societies. It would be enlightening to the people concerned, and it would inspire and build national confidence and pride if sci- entific surveys and in-depth studies could establish that many local communities and a few national communities are practically nonk- illing communities as defined by Paige.
This will change the con- ventional wisdom about killing being inherently a human impulse and thus inevitable and ineradicable. Having determined their existence, it would be instructive to learn what conditions have made those nonkilling communities emerge or develop and sustain themselves.
Paige has suggested some of these conditions and variables. He has for example pointed to the growing number of countries that have abolished the death pen- alty, promoted nonviolent means of resolving disputes, organized nonviolent movements and institutions to promote peace, social harmony, human rights and social justice, and to the few countries that have abolished their armies. An aspect of the nonkilling thesis is the challenge to political sci- ence and other social sciences and disciplines to examine their ba- sic premises and suppositions that may be violence-accepting or violence-prone, rather than being consciously supportive of peace, nonviolence and nonkilling as societal values and goals in the vision of the good society.
If philosophy and science and technology can advance knowledge and understanding to enhance the quality of material life, studies on the fundamental problem of killing and the factors that promote the value and goal of nonkilling could also lead to the enhancement of morality and spirituality as a self-sustaining force. This is needed in the quest for human security and human and social develop- ment.
Growing international and global cooperation and inter- religious dialogue for greater mutual tolerance and understanding among nations can very well include the value and goal of nonkill- ing societies and a nonkilling global society as a universal vision. The nonkilling thesis offers a theoretical framework for specific lo- cal and national research. One of our participants, Ambassador Howard Q. We want to pursue the inquiry and engage more and more leaders, scholars, students, and communities in the common Filipino quest for peace and development, good govern- ance and democratization anchored on the moral premise of a nonkilling society.
Over the years I have tried to learn about the meaning of peace in my readings and reflection. I humbly summed them up in the fol- lowing evolving verses. The influence of the nonkilling thesis is re- flected in the third and sixth stanzas. Significance of the Nonkilling Thesis The Indivisible Peace We Seek In unity with our people and all humankind We seek a just and enduring peace Law and order and mutual tolerance At home and around the world. But the peace we seek is much more than The absence of lethal force and physical violence. It is the tranquil fruit of freedom, Social justice and human development "Under the rule of law, truth and love" for One another, says our Constitution.
It is a state of society Marked by respect and reverence for The life and rights of every human being, And learning from various religions and cultures. And the empowering feeling of Solidarity and cooperation with family, Neighbor and nation, region And humankind.