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9 editions of this work

Two exceptions to this were C. In the s and s sport sociologists began to investigate continuing racial discrimination in sport with a liberal focus on issues of equity and opportunity, normally using quantitative methods to measure the degree of meritocracy in sports. More recently, scholars have used cultural studies approaches to examine questions of representation and ideology in sport media texts, and ethnographic methods to understand racial identity construction in sport and its intersections with class, nation, gender , and sexuality.

Instead, racial distinctions are based on arbitrarily chosen physical features, such as skin color and hair texture, that are used to demarcate people into groups. Barriers in sports, it is believed, exist only in connection with the physical abilities and motivation of individuals.

Sociologists of sport have sought to explain how the sports we choose to play, the ways that we play them, the meanings we give to and take from them, and the material and social rewards associated with participation and success are intimately related to the structure and organization of societies.

Given this, it requires great sociological imagination to go beyond such everyday understandings to reveal how both race and sport, far from being universal, naturally occurring phenomena, are actually the result of temporally bound and historically specific human action. In short, the interrelationship between race and sport is a deeply sociological articulation with profound political consequences for how we generally understand racial difference and who has access to sport itself.

Sociology of sports

There is an interesting historical parallel between the emergence of the scientific foundation for ideas of racial difference and the formation of organized, codified, competitive sport. Racial science — the scientific belief in the inherent superiority of white Europeans — developed into a coherent set of ideas during the nineteenth century. In Britain this was the period when sports such as rugby football, cricket, and soccer were institutionalized, as emerging governing bodies formalized rules and assumed authority over how these sports should be played. The nineteenth century was also the high point for European imperialism, when the idea of race emerged to justify conquest and exploitation.

In this context of imperialist expansion, buttressed by notions of inherent white European supremacy, sport came to be seen as a way of educating and socializing colonized peoples into more civilized forms of modernity. In this context, indigenous games and pastimes, suppressed since the first European expeditions overseas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, faded away or were gradually replaced with new sporting imports. The game itself, which is similar to volleyball but requiring the use of the hip rather than the hand, dates to around BC.

Although it still survives in parts of Mexico, it is no longer central to Mexican culture , except as a focus for anthropologists, archeologists, and tourists. At the start of the twentieth century notions of white European supremacy were simply assumed to be an objective, unquestionable fact. Given the importance of sport in reproducing dominant forms of hegemonic masculinity, it is not surprising that boxing, and heavyweight boxing in particular, came to be regarded as one of the prime avenues for demonstrating the attributes of white male strength, power, and courage.

The symbolic significance of black and white athletes competing against each other in public as equals, and the fear of black success in the sporting arena, was such that sporting encounters began to take on wider political significance. In Johnson became the first black World Heavyweight Champion. The later achievements in the s, s, and s of African American athletes such as the boxer Joe Louis, the athlete Jesse Owens, the baseball player Jackie Robinson, and the tennis player Althea Gibson, were subsequently seen by black people throughout the African diaspora as victories in the struggle for freedom from racial oppression.

Sport as a form of political resistance can be seen in the example of cricket in the Caribbean. While the imposition of European sporting forms led to both the extinction of indigenous games and an attempt at colonial governance over local populations, these very same conditions led to sports becoming a site for cultural contestation and ideological struggle.

He does well against women, but all guys do. I am sorry that you have been successfully brainwashed by the media. And Caster Semenya was not born a woman in any way shape or form. This person was born with an XY chromosomal makeup, testes and a lack of ovaries or a uterus. Semenya is a man and was always a man. Seemingly the entire establishment media skipped biology class and refuses to acknowledge the simple reality of what XY chromosomes mean. She was born with genital deformities and perhaps some level of prenatal androgen insensivity.

But she was never a woman. She is a man with a significant birth defect. Thank you. Loads of people missing the point here. Some things have been self-evident for all of human history. And I am starting to speak up on this issue. Setting an upper limit on testosterone is a clever solution. Objective and clear. Anti-doping rules already acknowledge the potential for hormones to improve performance. In the past they looked for artificial doping. A biologically male athlete competing as a woman has the same effect even if her hormone levels are natural for a male. I see this as a balancing of rights between biological women and trans or intersex women.

Provided the hormonal playing field is even, then the competition is fair. Accordingly, trans women and intersex women are not women. So why is it so hard to admit that they should not be able to compete against other women. What be much fairer would be a new category of sport: trans sport. The trans and the intersex people can then compete against each other.

This standard is terrible. Wonderful article, thank you for working to protect the rights of girls and women in a culture of shouting, threats and misinformation. The answer to all these problems is to return sport to the amateur activity it began as. Sure, no more world records, but who cares? Can we be honest? Today we cheer players crashing helmets together on the football field or groan as a gymnast breaks both her legs in lieu of bear-baiting, dog-or-cockfighting, or bare-knuckle back-alley boxing for bets.

Same shit, different day, MUCH more money involved for gambling, platforms and advertising. The athletes are nothing more than a vehicle to the real, monetary end. The Olympics are now unwatchable there are so many ads. Perhaps we should question what the ability to chase a ball or sprint has to do with the mental skills that will enable one to be successful in college and beyond.

Athletic prowess, after all, usually has a short shelf life. Vanishingly few make it to financially remunerative elite levels. Thousands incur debilitating injuries trying. What comes next for them? Some of you should hang around a barnyard long enough to learn something. All of these words.. While I go to the metaphorical salt mines every day they are arguing not about how many angels can dance on the head of a pin but what sex they are.

The liberal fascist democrats have devolved to not being able to distinguish a boy from a girl………and the want to run the world? The outcome from all of this delusion about biology is that women are eventually going to have to boycott sport. The question is whether women will do it in time to have any impact and whether they will still be able to negotiate their place in sport before they are all replaced by biological males.

The clock is ticking. Thank you, Doriane Coleman. Thank you for explaining this issue so well from the point of view of a woman of color with athletic ability and experience who is a legal scholar. This is an incredibly well written article: logical, lucid, informative and compassionate. I think the answer to this undeniably complex issue is threefold. Let biological women compete with biological women, let trans women who went through puberty as males compete with like trans women, and for the special category of athletes like Semenya 46 XY with DSD , allow them to compete as women if their T-level is lowered to the proscribed range.

I feel for Ms Semanya and athletes like her, but I also completely understand the feelings of frustration and disillusionment suffered by the athletes who have to compete against pretty much insurmountable odds. Coleman — A bit off topic, but where do you stand on female tennis players being paid the same as male players despite doing less work and garnering a much smaller share of the viewing audience, i. The vast majority of people, I have found, alas, are either unable or unwilling to critically examine their assumptions. If you critically examine your own assumptions as you suggest others fail to do…..

You are taking a hypocritical stance. You have NO supportable foundation for your preferences regarding who should be allowed to compete in what category. Your preferences are no better than anyone elses. When you claim others have no foundations….. This is in essence a classic tu quoque fallacy. But they are not. Your claim that they are is merely that, an unsupported, contradictable, and contradicted claim. Now, in general, I think sports in general whether for men or women are a huge waste of time and resources.

But given that they do exist, the supportable foundation for my preferences is that trans women should not be denied economic opportunities relative to cis women merely by virtue of being trans; and if they are, this is the very definition of discrimination and oppression.

Thank you, Outraged, for your participation in this discussion. However, there are several aspects of your argument that still confuse me. Must they be forced to first self-identify as a woman or a man before they can participate in gendered sports events?

Ethnicity, Sport, Identity: Struggles for Status (Sport in the Global Society)

Viewed through a critical lens, it seems to me that a significant inequity would still exist, since the male-female sports divisions would still exist. Would this inequity be important to you? If so, how would you resolve it? Alternatively, perhaps you are you proposing that we abolish gender divisions in sports altogether? Abolishing gender divisions would a concern for me. As a high school teacher, I have seen many girls embrace sports. They learn about the rewards of hard work and training and teamwork.

Holocaust and Human Behavior

These are all good things. If we abolished male-female sports divisions in high school, would we rob some of our girls of these learning opportunities? Please say more about how you think things should be. In fact much research in psychology, neuroimaging, etc. And in fact, the human brain is not only expert at deceiving individuals about their true motives, but this happens at an organizational and institutional level also. And that is, of course, exactly what I am suggesting here: the existence of trans individuals is a threat to the conservative social order, and that is what all this is really about.

I could easily come up with several hypothetical scenarios for which the conservative response would be quite different, yet the reality for most women athletes would be the same. For instance, in order to improve their efficacy as soldiers, the Armed Forces subjects female soldiers to an intense bout of hormonal treatments, including testosterone similar to what the East Germans did in the bad old days.

Then, when these soldiers return home from their tour of duty, some of them want to compete in athletic events. Guess what happens? Society owes them this chance, etc. The Olympics are an absolute scam and shake-down racket and should be sued out of existence, and several people put in prison, in my view IOC corruption is well known. Individual groups and organizations are free, of course, to organize their own events as they see fit. As for high school athletics, your argument is not cogent.

Yes, some students derive some personal benefit from them. But other students who do not take part in athletics might derive some personal benefits from other extracurriculars, which would not cost the schools nearly as much resources, and provide much more benefits. Imagine if instead all the money shelled out for football stadiums, uniforms, transportation, etc. But they should at the expense of women, right?

Who have been giving up their physical, emotional and psychological space to every man who decides he wants it for millennia. You know, with all the privileges women around the world currently enjoy, like lipstick and periods. You obviously failed Intersectionality And you think that being oppressed on one axis justifies continuing structures of oppression on others. That makes you a hypocrite, just like the author in the OP. They are not privileged relative to cis men. Just like white women are privileged relative to black women on the racial axis of oppression.

Yes, this means cis and white women must be willing to part with their privileges, too, if their demand to dismantle the patriarchy be more than just mere opportunism, self-interest, and hypocrisy. Which is a denial of reality, to pretend that a trans woman benefits from the patriarchal power structure in the same way that a cis man does.

What is it precisely that some trans people are so desperate to identify as? ETA: This is why conservatives will never win against the Woke. Whenever Woke ideology leads in an undesired direction, they appeal at least implicitly to a conservative principle, and conservatives very foolishly take the bait and bail the Woke out instead of forcing Woke ideology to its conclusion. The real left. Fans of college football would be justly outraged if the rules allowed NFL players to play in college games — not even a great college team like Alabama would be able to compete under those circumstances.

The effect would be to wreck college football. Have you watched College sport? The divide between very athletic and average is spectacular. College level actually is a place to watch young people who excel at their sport outright demolish average people. I mean how else could you know that someone is better if they did not show you on the field.

Maybe the best way forward is to let all individuals compete without drugs. Integrate the Male and Female sports and let the best person s win. This would also eliminate the need for Title IX. This is stupid. Everybody knows that boys wear blue and girls wear pink. It is just a matter or looking at the color, and then you know everything that is to be known. Apparently those unhappy with this ruling were not good enough to win as males and thus decided to compete as females. Wow, the desire to win overrode everything else.

There is freedom of association. But the the very top levels all should compete with each other. If a Male wants to compete and beat the Female in sport X why not. They same for a Transgender or Inter-Sex individual. Castor is a woman. End of story. Nor did Castor wake up from the couch and decided to start running today. She has put a lifetime of effort to be the most competitive at her sport. You can have a defect and not act upon it or decide to do something that the defect benefits towards. And guess what!? We all use our given benefits in life for our own advantage.

And I get that it really sucks when others are plain better than you, but you may not realize that she is likely not smarter than the average bear. She may even have a hard time in so many other fields in life just like everyone else. There is NO fairness is competition. You win or you loose. Let me put it another way. Is it fair that some are just way better at a sport than others?

How about for IQ? How about for beauty? She has not asked to be Trans which this article has gleefully lumped in to get readers into a dizzy. She was given these benefits at birth. This is a good article. However, the author only hints at suggests the obvious conclusion. Caster Semenya is a man Xy and should be competing with other men.

For fun, take a look at what Zuby did over in the UK. Check out the beard on this guy. How do you know she is a man? Semenya has been through vigorous examination for years. He has testes internal and no ovaries or uterus. His testosterone levels are in the male range. Respectfully, Caster Semenya is a intersex person who was assigned female gender at birth. So how do you know she does not have ovaries or a uterus? As for no ovaries and uterus, that question was reported on extensively back in See the following articles. Note that 5 is still three times the high-end of the normal female range.

However, that level of subtlety has been lost on the other side of this debate. Well written thank you for the background and data. This just means womens sports will take a decade or two to be completely dominated by biological men instead of a few years. Why is Caster Semenya not on the data visualization? Because it destroys the argument that testosterone makes her unbeatable. And far, far behind the men. Clearly she is in the range of elite women runners, and nowhere near the range of men.

In other words, Caster is a fast woman, and anatomy, not chromosomes should be used to define sex. Both XY women and XX men exist, with genitalia that define their sex. DNA is not the only influence on development as drug-induced birth defects such as caused by thalidomide clearly show. Caster Semenya was just one of the men who medaled in the in Allowing men to compete against women is absurd.

The fact that all three of the winners were really men is telling. Such a result can hardly be a coincidence. While these runners may be XY, they were identified as female at birth. They do not have penises and were raised as girls by their families. They might be genetically male, but socially, they are women.

A few decades ago, their intersex status would have probably never been discovered, not even by them. Sex is defined by and phenotype. For the c. Rumor has it that Semenya possesses genitalia that are superficially female in appearance. That period was infamous for its doping scandals. O, You are so right. No issues of biology, sexual development, chromosomes, etc. Just one big, open to all, competition.

Yeah, that would actually require reading books written by women for about a hundred years. Common sense tells us all we need to know about this situation. But of course, common sense is out of fashion. However, I agree with you. No self-respecting trans woman would compete with biological females.

Race and Sports Video History

Alas, self-respect is in short supply these days. Congratulations to Quilette for publishing this piece. As has been mentioned above, so many progressive publications — for want of a better of word — toed the line and completely failed to mention that Caster is XY, as if this was a minor detail. As for Outraged, is it perfect satire? Scarily, the fact that is impossible to tell speaks volumes. Can anyone tell me why jockies are tiny men?

Why are there no? Seems like a sport women ought to move into, take it away from men. And not even have to claim some gender victimhood status. There are increasing numbers of female jockeys here in Australia, both full professional and apprentice. No one cares about female athletics anyway. Ask anyone who the fastest man in the world is and they will say Usain Bolt. Ask them who is the fastest woman over the same distance… tumbleweeds. No one either knows nor cares. And even then there are tens of thousands of men who have run faster, myself included, and I did it 10 years before the Seoul Olympics, on a grass track.

Do people actually care more about male track and field athletes than female? Usain bolt is only famous because he is a record holder and because he is so dominant. When female athletes are very dominant in their sport, they get known too. Ronda Rousey, Serena williams, flo jo etc. Caster is being treated consistently with other Y-chromosomed persons transgendered individuals. Very respectful to gender identity, but prone to media mischaracterization of the situation. What if a woman has more androgen receptors than others?

What if her androgen receptors are more sensitive? What if she is capable of producing high levels of testosterone but her cells have a diminished capacity to detect it? What if a male identified individual still fits the categories presented by the author? If we are to believe the authors view, it would be unfair to leave these avenues unexamined and they are absolutely not limited to Disorders of sex development or the trans community.

What will she do then? Return her scholarships and trophies? I have to agree with Outrage, privilege has allowed this lawyer to see their biased opinions of biology as somehow supported by a deep understanding of the actual underlying processes. Women with XX can have any natural testosterone level, even if it is freakishly high for some reason.

A high testosterone level compared to normal ranges is a red flag for doping anyways for either sex. The authors appear to be two feminist scholars. One thing I have learned, from reading criticism of the op-ed, is that testosterone is a biological marker of sex difference almost as straightforward as sex chromosomes. XX is clearly different from XY, and men simply have far greater quantities of testosterone in their system. At this point we are faced with a familiar kind of enigma.

A similar question could be asked as to why the Times has given them a platform to promote their forthcoming book on this topic, but I will put that aside… I have considered a few explanations. But the explanation I favor, is that they are ideologically apriori committed to the idea that sex differences are culturally constructed, and that this makes it necessary to debunk anything which would instead imply that some of those differences are biologically determined. The facts here are especially dangerous to their ideology, and so, like a red flag to a bull, that automatically makes it a high-priority target for debunking, deconstruction, and obfuscation.

The public will be alienated and stop watching. Sponsors will loose interest except for the very PC. A few women get this the author obviously. They are quite willing to throw out the baby with the bathwater. Regardless of the argument, referring to her as male when she clearly identifies as female and is biologically intersex Not male is just offensive. Trans people are the most persecuted minority group on the planet…. Being intersex with tested, no ovaries, and testosterone at male levels means it would be more appropriate than competing against women.

The author of this article was much more delicate than she needed to be about Semenya. Trans people are not the most persecuted minority on the planet. They are accorded undue privileges in the West, and seen as perferable to gays in the Muslim world. Oh, Flic, men can also be extremely competitive, even if they are not talented. I have no doubt some men who cannot successfully compete against men will choose to compete against women if the option is available.

Particularly since no real transitioning is necessary. Fun stuff. I am fairly libertarian. Just let them all compete as indviduals. You run one mile and the one who runs the fastest wins or you have a boxing competition the better boxer wins. All Combat roles in the US military are now open open to females.

If they can pass the standards and are the best more power to them. Although, a few service branches to sex-norm their standards bad for combat performance. That said, we still have freedom of association. People who think these limitations are horrible do not have to participate. Perhaps the courts could force the best female one mile runner in a given year to compete once a year against any males. That way the best get to compete and they could leave demonstrate their relative runnig speed.

You might do this at every-level of competition if there was an interest. When I watched the m run in the Olympics, I was really puzzled. The winner looked like a man albeit with long hair , walked and talked like a man. So were the other two medalists. Even the controversial heavyweight Soviet athletes Tamara and Irina Press in early s looked more womanly. Any sane society will in a conflict like this use the minimum damage principle. Letting males with a certain defect or transwomen compete with girls will hurt tens of thousands, maybe millions of women athletes.

Excluding them will hurt a much much lower number of special and trans individuals. That is what they did in and the Press sisters stopped competing. But, but, but wait: leftist understanding of human rights rejects that. It puts rights of certain minorities before those of majorities, no matter what the cost.

I will elaborate on that later. Supporting Semenya is an opportunity to present yourself as the avant-garde, the enlightened, follower of the Party Line, and smear, intimidate and eliminate the opposition — exactly as the Holy Inquisition worked. The Left is always disciplined and united. The Right is fractured, infiltrated by the leftists, corrupted by corporate funding and special interests. They often make very good observation on social justice issues, but lose all credibility when discussing science. Now back to minorities. According to progressive media and social science madrassas, not all minorities deserve preferential treatment.

It does not apply to Christian minorities. BBC interviewed a Pakistani bishop, who fled to Britain because of threats to his life. The BBC man was repeatedly asking the bishop if he did not feel bad about deserting his flock, suggesting he should go back.

The journalist was not even trying to hide his hatred toward the bishop. A female NPR reporter did exactly the same to a minister who fled Zimbabwe. So Christian ministers who really fear for their lives should go back and become martyrs, while the same media show infinite compassion to economic migrants from the same countries. As soon as the left gets power in a certain area, they start destroying the old order, intimidating, terrorizing and subjugating people. The scary thing is: they have practically nothing positive to offer. Not so much about this article, but a comment on the suggestion, offered to Caster Semenya, that she take Testosterone-reducing drugs.

Given 1 most drugs have unintended consequences 2 the preposterousness of asking an otherwise healthy person to take drugs, and 3 the fact that biology almost always turns out to be more complicated than earlier supposed. First it was racism, then the feminist gender studies professors got on board to present a reductionist argument, now appeal is being made to suggest that medication suggested will harm Caster, with a group of MDs offering their opinion for what its worth.

I hope this article gets shared and discussed more widely, so that informed rather than emotional positions can prevail. Excellent article all in all, though it is my understanding that Castor Semenya is a biological male XY who was born with no uterus, no ovaries, and undescended testes and indeterminate external genitalia. Had Castor been born in a first-world country, medical interventions would have most likely been performed to descend the testes. A more in depth article on Semenya and the obfuscation of the MSM. Some have raised the question of why we have female sports anyway.

Sex is a convenient way numerically to divide the population in half, with each half sharing many common characteristics and each half differing from the other in statistically significant ways. Sex is readily identifiable and ingrained in all human societies. Humanity values physical health and development, and sports is a system to both develop and showcase athletic skill.

As women have improved their status to near equality with men, they have demanded and received access to sports. We have decided that it is wrong to deny half of the population, the female half, access to sports. We could decide that it is wrong to deny sports to other classifications of humans such as little people, trans people, disabled people we have- the Paraolympics , or mentally handicapped we have — the Special Olympics. If there is enough interest in the trans community, perhaps they should develop their own leagues and competition. I, for one, am looking forward to the drag races.

Excellent and very thoughtful article. Probably the best article I read on Quillette. Pingback: Skills gap 2 — The Other Club. Two quick points. Second, I note the author enjoyed the govt privileges Title IX gave her and many women in sports in the university in the U. Despite lack of popularity and much lower participation by women themselves, colleges were forced to subsidize female sporting teams and programs, including many scholarships.

Oftentimes even middling female athletes were given prestigious scholarships and immense monies were spent by colleges to support these mandated programs. Many schools had to cut spending from other popular and more relevant sports programs to accomplish this. This is on top of all the overt privileges granted to women in our educational environment over the years. What was the rationale for abandoning karyotyping, and for adopting it in the first place?

How could such a criterion become irrelevant? Just how rare must something be for you to consider it so? Maybe most are not obvious and are only detected through testing, and most people with the condition identify as that which they most look like outwardly, so no one is the wiser. The problem only arises when someone, like Caster, identifies with the gender which does not correspond best to their physical traits.

Great comment. A fair decision of CAS for all not intersex woman. These women such as Semenya, Wambui and.. Other wise you may give them gold medal for all next big competitions right now. This biologocial advantage no normal women can compensate by training so congratulations to CAS and your great articel. Sports is in effect a celebrated discrimination. Winner takes all to the best thrower, or fastest runner, or fastest person to react. Some sporting associations NBA do not set such boundaries, and thus allows anybody to participate, so long as they are good. This argument of intersex female participating in female sports is no different than that of blacks are better track athletes than whites or asians, or that polynesians are suitably built for rugby.

Should we also start setting boundaries in terms of race? After all, some already doing so with SAT scores for admissions purposes. Everything is a competition. There will be winners, and there will be losers. Time to figure out what are you good at and get on with life. It is totally different. Intersex means in between the sexes, someone who does not fit into either category, physically, because they have characteristics of both. Psychologically they may identify more with one gender than the other, but that is irrelevant to sport. The question is whether they should be allowed to compete according to their psychological identification, or their physical reality.

Allowing someone who identifies as female but actually has the physical characteristics of a male, is unfair to the actual women. Rather it is bimodal, with a small number of people in the middle feeling more comfortable identifying as the other gender, and a small number at the extremes.

Intersex means in BETWEEN the sexes, someone who does not fit into either category, physically, because they have characteristics of both. Clearly you have some logical inconsistencies to deal with here. If you want to argue bimodal, then one should be able to accurately and completely define what constitutes as male, and what constitutes as female.

Allow me to help you here, if we are to use chromosomes as the basis of sex, where as long as you have a Y normal XY males and Klinefelters males , you are male. This would be a bimodal distribution. You may change your gonads, but you will definitely not change your DNA. If we are to use that as the definition of sex, then yes I will argue that sex is a spectrum because you can lie anywhere on that number line.

And when that happens, questions on how these boundaries are set will arise as shown here. In addition, to use any physical traits as a tool to separate male and female would result in the same argument and problem here. The CAS and IAAF should have just set chromosonal tests as the ultimate marker in gender identification and categorisation, at least at a time before people are able to manipulate their chromosomes at will.

If you ask me, I would let economics take the wheel. Funny cause intersex participants will surely cause its demise faster. Nicely written piece. While the arguments are well articulated, I unfortunately do not see the scientific evidence in support of the arguments. How or why sports governing bodies such as the IAAF ignores the science, is beyond me. Answer within a second the question why one would send a 17 year old girl of a rural african village to a far-off Bydgoszcz Poland , just competing as an also ran?

That question that I posed myself in led to an answer just 13 months later during the World Athletics Championships m Final in Berlin, where Caster Semenya outsprinted the lot in a fashion never seen in athletics before. Rumoured was she had undergone secretly medical procedures. In she vanished from the athletic scene. At m the best girls are globally approx. No woman, outside DSD athletes or doping-induced athletes ever outperformed the age world best performance of a boy To get away from the distraction of T-levels, for a moment.

Anaerobic enlarged capacity has been the sportive weapon Caster Semenya used throughout her career, except for the last time last Friday at Doha, where she apart from the hare run all the race by herself. And another thing: the performances itself seem to me, with respect to their starting point, quite mediocre. But these performances are still enough to dominance. Mary Decker, the fallen angel of the Los Angeles Olympics, ran as a year-old the m in World level is for those who are really the best. How about we use the criteria I learned oh-so-many years ago in medical school?

If you have an XX genotype, you are a woman. If XY, you are a man. You can be XXY or XY with a y chromosome with significant deletions on it or XY with androgen insensitivity and in all cases, not female. These is very clear cut and ideologues just want to pretend it is complicated so they can lie to themselves and say that both sex and gender are on a complex spectrum rather than a binary system.

So a woman with CAIS who wanted to compete with other women would not have any particular advantage. There is no reason to complicate reasonable standards to allow people with this kind of rare disorder. Because they are not female. As Ms. Coleman makes clear, the reason women need their own protected category is not just because their chromosomes are XX. Women participate in a separate category because of the effects of testosterone and male puberty that put them at a disadvantage.

CAIS women do not undergo male puberty. They do not have testosterone. If not for the medical advances of the past few decades, most of them would live their lives never realizing that they were genetically male. The hearth of the problem is that female sport makes no sense, because less feminine women have an advantage over more feminine women: there is a continuum, and who wins is determined by where the arbitrary threshold is put. Should we allow trans to compete among women?

XY disorders? Rather than testosterone, height, build and race determine a large portion of success in sports and different sports require different builds. XX women with high testosterone tend to be women with various disorders and the negative health outcomes that accompany these disorders make them worse athletes, not better ones. Lambelet-Coleman was one of my heroes. After reading this brilliant article, as a former attorney and law professor myself, she continues to impress and inspire.

Jesus h Christ. How are people not getting it? She has xy chromosomes and testes. Every single man is banned regardless of what natural abilities they might have. Have sports divide athletes into groups of consisting of those who have an identifiable set of what ever genitals competing against others with a like set of genitals.

The alternative is to shut down gender based sports and have open to all, winner men takes all. Quite a few, apparently. Only a tiny percentage of human beings make it to the Olympics and similarly elite competitions, so it makes sense that that tiny group would attract a rare group of people with physical advantages. I think increased interest has brought scrutiny.

Forty years ago, Caster Semenya would have probably never realized she was genetically male. She would have most likely lived her life thinking she was an infertile, masculine woman. The olympics are a lost for society as a whole. Her T levels were lower than the 7. Which is why she has been able to compete for the past decade.

This is truly a complicated issue. She is only against it because it impinges on her life. Sorry ladies you are going to lose this battle. Actual female sports are an inferior product anyway, especially since all the sports were created for men. So why are we funding an inferior product just to make women and girls feel better? Society should create sports exclusively for women that they are superior at. Or women should only compete in existing sports that they can actually compete with men equally. On top of all that this piece was way too long, it could have been better written using less words, I almost gave up reading the entire piece of nonsense.

I think half the problem is that in our brave new progressive world, where the political correctness religion has become dominant, western society is losing sight of reality in many cases, caused by the need for ordinary people to avoid being accused of heresy or blasphemy against doctrines imposed by the extremely powerful high priests and priestess of our new religion.

The core issue is the fact that trans gender people have been elevated to the highest, most protected victim level within the political correctness religion and thus accorded all sorts of illogical preferential rights over the rest of us. One of the consequences of that, is that female athletes and sportswomen are now forced to accept that men claiming to be women are equal in every way to them and can compete against them in sport. Hence the argument, which needs all sorts of contortions to try make it consistent within this broader scenario. If she is biologically a female, well then she automatically qualifies.

This is the issue raised by this ruling. It might mean that cisgender women are disadvantaged by their genetics, just as I am disadvantaged by my genetics I am a cisgender man but without the luck to have athletic genes. A thorough and compelling article. The trans movement activists in the West are not satisfied with being accepted as that legitimate third category, but insist on MTF trans being considered as actual, ordinary women, and FTM trans as actual, real men, which no society does.

You should reflect on the last three paragraphs which I think should have been at the start. A simple cheek swab for a Y chromosome in year-olds could eliminate such surprises and route intersex athletes into their own competitions. As a non-native speaker of English, I cannot help but shake my head to this nonsensical debate of identity, which exists due to English itself being a piss poor language no really, it, like most European languages are far inferior in structure, semantics, grammar and phonology to languages such as Korean and most Indian languages.

Ditto for male and men. It has 4 genders in its language vocabulary: male, female, trans and neuter this is applied to non-living objects only, and that too, only being extremely formal. Its laughable to watch all this problem existing, due to English and European languages being such shitty languages to begin with. To elaborate, in Hindi or various other languages, trans identity is decisive. Leaves people to actually focus on the rights and rights violations of people and their comfort, than waging silly battles regarding terminologies in a shitty language.

Trans women are women, period Intersex women are women, period Trans and intersex people just want to be treated as their identified gender, so let them. These are not exclusive clubs for your transphobic TERF friends, as you insinuate near the end of the article. I will remember your name, so i can celebrate with all of my friends when you are fired or forced to resign from your current position for being a bigot. Chicks with XY are guys. And I will remember your silly posts where you substitute lies for truth. Transwomen are NOT the same as other biological women — period!

Intersex women are NOT the same as other biological women — period! Your last paragraph is direct evidence of that. Too bad. Now they can just continue to view this as trans-oppression while admiring the fine clothes of the emperor. They are men, pure and simple. You are just as male with undescended testicles pumping out testosterone as with normal scrotal ones pumping out testosterone. In spite of all the nonbinary gender blather, these are men competing against normal women. End of discussion. Reading a rational, common-sense argument and explanation of the tyrannical use of gender-identity as social and political deconstruction is the fresh air we need.

Nice article. I hope that every Democrat reads it. Democrats in the House passed a bill providing rights to transgender athletes to compete in athletic events according their gender identity.

Sport and Race as Social Phenomena

As a father of a female tennis athlete, I oppose allowing biological males to compete against biological females. I make a plea to every Democrat voter. Please pressure elected Democrats to stop the madness on gender identity. Folks, calm down. It just politics as the theater of the politically absurd.

The so-called Equality Act would only worsen this trend. Probably not. Of course. Does PS admit the obvious? Of course, not. DSD athletes as they are differently abled may be separated from the normal stream of biological male and female athletes and allowed to participate in paralympic sports in their respective sports disciplines where the competition will remain within DSD athletes only.

This is a thoughtful, well-reasoned essay and a compelling argument. Commenters who only respond with anger, rage, and opinions based on nothing are actually giving your argument more validity. So, a female, or a woman, no longer exist as a separate biological entity. They are only a female, or only a woman if their T scores says they are.

Caster Semenya did not alter her body via drugs, so why force her to take drugs in order to compete. The requirement is a total reversal of the practice of drug-free sports. She has the condition known as intersex. By the way, what about chess? Is performance in chess also heavily affected by the T. After all, people just sit in their chairs, not much physical exertion required and the brain only consumes like 20 watts , still men and women compete separately.

As they do in shooting. On the other hand, there is no separation of sexes in equestrian or sailing though those do call for a certain level of physical fitness. Is it because, Testosterone or not, de facto women can not compete on the equal footing in chess but can riding horses? Further, the regulation in question seems to apply to middle distance races only indeed, Semenya intends to compete in 5K instead of in future , but the gap there at the elite level is also huge, so would she not be as dominant as before? If not why not? I am medically trained and South African. I can totally understand the science and the logic behind the testing and wanting to level the playing field.

I do however feel that there are more then just one lady that will be affected by this ruling. And possibly the only reason IAAF is only implementing it now, is because there is enough competitors complaining, cause lets face it, some previous m women winners were also questionable….

As usual the regressives are Outraged, and calling for sackings and depersonisings as is the norm of their Totalitarian way. Demanding even. Share this: Pocket. Outraged says. I therefore call for your immediate resignation from the faculty at Duke Law School. Ramon Amoedo says.

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A Victory for Female Athletes Everywhere - Quillette

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