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Why Birthright Citizenship Is Rare In Europe

In such cases, German law allows children to retain their multiple nationality permanently; i. Persons with multiple nationality may, however, choose to give up their German citizenship Section 26 of the Nationality Act. The number of German multiple nationals is unknown because in Germany they are treated exclusively as German nationals and cannot invoke their other nationality when dealing with the authorities. Multiple nationality is no longer a rarity and does not cause any special difficulties. As a rule, no. One aim of German nationality law is to avoid creating multiple nationality through naturalization as far as possible.

However, there are exceptions for cases of special hardship, specifically:.

Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe : David Cesarani :

In addition, candidates for naturalization from EU countries are subject to special rules. Given the aim of increasing European integration, the law contains special rules for EU citizens: They are not required to give up their previous citizenship in order to become naturalized German citizens, if their country of origin does not require Germans to give up their citizenship to become naturalized citizens of that country. According to Section 25 para. With regard to the Netherlands and Slovenia, it applies only to certain categories of persons.

Germany for the Germans?

4.1 Introduction

Citizenship and nationality in a divided nation Mary Fulbrook 6. The spice of life? Ethnic difference, politics and culture in modern Britain Tony Kushner 8. France Patrick Weil 9. Migration, refugees and ethnic plurality as issues of public and political debates in West Germany Karen Schonwalder The northern league in Italy: Changing friends and foe, and its political opportunity structure Carlo Ruzza and Oliver Schmidtke Conclusion. David Cesarani and Mary Fulbrook show more.

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Sign up now. Exactly why the movement of peoples should be such a threat is nowhere explained, except by referencing "intolerance" in Member States. European Forum of Left Feminists, Racism and xenophobia are brewing and uncontainable issues which policy-makers have yet to deal with openly and head-on. They are linked with the history of fascism and dictatorships in some European nations, remnants of which form dangerous undercurrents which, from time to time, surface both politically and in violent outbursts in the European Union more generally.

While legislation regarding citizenship and its relationship to soil, marriage and birth has changed in the second half of the twentieth century, a brief historical overview is essential for proper perspective on these questions Spencer, ; Bhabha and Shutter, The definition of citizenship has until recently depended largely on a heterosexist and sexist approach to women in society. Enormous inequalities between men and women are clearly illustrated in common law and nationality legislation passed over the last two centuries.

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For example, until recently British women outside Britain were unable to pass their citizenship on to their children; citizenship could only pass through the male. Children born abroad would only be considered British subjects if their father was a British national. Children born abroad to unmarried British women were not considered British subjects Bhabha and Shutter, Further, British women entering into a legal contract of marriage with a non-British male subject lost any rights to their British nationality; under the British Nationality Act, so did their children.

However, under the Nationality Act foreign women marrying British males automatically gained British nationality. They did not necessarly lose their own national status and could therefore have two citizenships. However, women who married non-Britsh men were forced to give up their British nationality and adopt that of their husband, provided that the spouse's country of origin allowed this. Otherwise the women became stateless.

Men who married non-British female spouses, however, kept their own nationality.

European Immigrants in the United States

Thus the loss of British citizenship was not a fear for British-born men. Women who lost their British nationality on marriage were deprived of their right to vote in national elections and did not have an automatic right to live in Britain Bhabha and Shutter, Legitimacy and nationality passed through the male; women were denied equitable civil rights. Men were full citizens; women were like half citizens. It was not until that British women could transmit their nationality to their children.

Thus, males were encouraged and supported in their migrations and movement through being assured of the protection of their home state no matter where they lived or who they married.

Mises Wire

Women were not similarly protected. Clearly, the very concept of citizenship has been a thoroughly gendered one Bhabha and Shutter, ; and "for black and migrant women the notion of Europe and European Citizenship is perceived as a racist and restrictive category, which practically results in reducing black and migrant women to the status of second class citizens" Hanmer et al, The historical development of the concept of citizenship has led researchers to question its modern use. If the question is, 'Who is a European? Who is a non-European?

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  7. For example, in England the Immigration Act virtually ended all migration for settlement, restricting it to spouses and dependents of those already settled here and those who had a parent or grandparent born in the UK. This act came into force on 1 January , the day Britain finally joined the European Community.